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Ja^fstown pioneers from Poland / 

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The Jamestown Chapter in the annals of the 
United States met with a strange and truly sing- 
ular fate. 

In the conglomeration of events whidh led to 
the War Between the States and its aftermath, 
Jamestown became the subject matter of an in- 
tense and partisan controversy. 

As a natural result and consequence of this 
fateful conflict, the point of view of the North 
prevailed in textbooks, in the interpretation of 
historical events, and even extended to historical 

Thus Jamestown, geographically situated in the 
territory of the South, has been relegated for 
whole decades within the category of minor events 
in the history of our land. Even the life and 
achievements of fabulous Captain John Smith were 
subjects of disparagement. 

The fact, that the Jamestown epic antedates 
the Pilgrim saga often has been minimized. Many 
Americans were not aware of the fact that James- 
town and its outlying plantations had already 
their own House of Burgesses, and the Polish 
Jamestowners had won their strike for enfran- 
chisement before the Mayflower reached the 
American shores in 1620. This fact, however, does 
not detract from the Piligirims' glory of achieve- 
ments. In the majestic panorama of our land, 
Jamestown and Plymouth Rock can proudly share 
historic limelight as the repositories of American 

At the turn of the present century, a rennais- 
sance in historical objectivity began and James- 
town regained its rightful place in the annals of 
Americana, as "the cradle of the Republic," and 
the Jamestowners — as the "beginners of a nation." 
The 300th anniversary of the founding of the 
colony was commemorated in 1907 with the im- 
pressive Jamestown obelisk honoring these pio- 

* * • 

Due to these circumstances, the Polish James- 
towners who linked their destiny with those of 
the first settlers of Virginia, fared no better tfhan 
their co-pioneers in recorded recognition. 

This is the first national observance in which 
Americans of Polish origin or descent are honor- 
ing the memory of their Jamestown ancestors 
and predecessors. 

That the Poles were among the pioneers of Vir- 
ginia and shared the fortunes and misfortunes 
of the first white settlers in this part of our land, 
was a logical sequence of the Anglo-Polish econo- 
mic and cultural ties developed throughout pre- 
ceding centuries in Europe. 

* * • 

Poland, at that time, had reached the zenith of 
the "Golden Epoch" of her history. Kings Zyg- 
munt III and Wladyslaw IV were laying the 
groundwork of "the great design," which, had it 
been realized, would have created a United States 
of Central and Eastern Europe. The thesis of Am- 
drzej Frycz Modrzewski, far ahead of his times, 
"0 Naprawie Rzeczypospolitej," constituted the 
basis of contemporary intellectual discussions. One 
of the foremost European statesmen, Jan Zamoy- 
ski, who died in 1605, left his nation, Poland, a 
noble legacy known to historians as the "Expe- 
riment in the Royal Republic." Sobieski's Vienna 
victory, which was to arrest the advance of Islam 
into Europe forever, was yet to come. 

* * • 

The Poles came to Jamestown not as adven- 
turers or mercenaries, but as desperately needed 
by the Colony craftsmen and experienced soldiers, 
recruited in Europe by the Virginia Company, at 
the insistence of Captain John Smith. 

We have no accurate historical data as to how 
many Poles there were originally in Jamestown. 
It is certain that a group of them came to Virginia 
on the second supply ship, Mary and Margaret, 
which docked at Jamestown in October, 1608. 

Scattered records, documents and accounts writ- 
ten by original Jamestowners indicate that the 
number of the pioneers from Poland was of an 
extent to merit mention and their achievements 
and contributions to the welfare and growth of 
the Colony of a character to command deserved 


Much research work is yet to be performed in 
order to fully uncover and ascertain facts hitherto 
hidden in musty archives, ship maniftests and 
other documents. 

* * • 

The Jamestown story reveals that the love of 
liberty was prevalent in the colony. Thus, the 
Poles found themselves in congenial company. 
When, however, at the time of the constituting 
of the General Assembly full liberty and equality 
for all of the colonists was mitigated against, 
the Poles intrepidly asserted their rights and won 

These details are more fully set forth and ex- 
plained in the following pages of this book. 

My aim is not to discuss the various historical 
aspects of this anniversary as interesting and fas- 
cinating as they prove to be. 

My duty and privilege is to greet you on these 
hallowed Jamestown grounds, on this 350th anni- 
versary of the arrival thereto of the Polish pio- 
neers; to express on behalf of the Executive Of- 
ficers of the Polish American Congress our deep 
and heartfelt thanks and appreciation to all of 
those who contributed to the success of this ob- 
servance; and to re-assert on this so memorable 
an occasion that seven million Americans of Po- 
lish origin cherish gratefully the legacy left to 
us by our ancestors, and to renew the declaration, 
that our mission is and shall at all times be to 
defend the spiritual heritage of our pioneers. 

Polish American Congress. 

The arrival of the settlers at Jamestown. (A painting 

by Griffith Baily Coale in the Stale Capitol. Richmond, 



Jamestown Monument 
erected by the United 
States in 1907 to com- 
memorate the 300th 
anniversary of the 
landing- of the first 
Jamestown settlers. 

Jamestown Island 
with the new cause- 
way leading to the 
mainland and Glass- 
house Point. 






April — King James I granted a charter to the Vir- 
ginia Company of London. 

December 19-20 — A group of 105 colonists and 39 
mariners sailed from England in three small 
ships, Susan Constant, Godspeed and Discovery, 
under the command of Captains Christopher New- 
port, Bartholomew Gosnold and John Ratcliffe, 


April 26 — The ships reached the Chesapeake Bay. 
sailed up the James River for 17 days, and then 
chose a small peninsula SO miles from its mouth 
as the site of the colony. 

September — Capx. John Smith became President of 
the colony by popular demand (Ratcliffe deposed). 

October — Second supply ship, Mary and Margaret 
arrived under the command of Capx. Christopher 
Newport, bringing "eight Dutch men and Poles, 
with some others to the number of seaventie per- 

— Glass House built with the help of Poles as- 
signed to the project by Capt. Smith. 
— Manufacture of tar, pitch and potash started. 

December — First samples of American-made export 
goods ready for shipment to England (tryals of 
Pitch, Tarre. Glasse, Frankimcense. Sope Ashes 
with Clapboord and Waynscot"— True Travels). 


Cape Henry — Where the Pioneers Landed 


From a painting by Stephen Reid in the Norfolk iluneum of Arte and Science), Norfolk, Virginia 

1609-10 — Capi. Smith wounded in conspiracy of Rat- 

cliffe and Archer, departed (around Christmas 

time) for England. "The Starring Time"; only 65 

colonists survived. Arrival of Lord De La Ware's 

fleet., ) 

1619 — The House of Burgesses met; the Poles struck 
for civil liberties. 

1622 — The Pamunkee Indians..) attacked the settle- 
ment, killing 350 men. women and children; the 
colonists struck back with vengeance and the In- 
dians left them alone for the next 20 years. 

1624 — The Virginia Company of London lost 


1644 — The Pamunkees attacked again wreaking havoc 
in the colony. 

1676 — Jamestown burned to the ground during the 

Bacon's rebellion.^) 
1698 — Fire destroyed adjacent village; the remaining 
settlers left the ruins and moved to the "Middle 
plantation" which in 1699 took the name of Wil- 

* * » 

1) Listed among the arrivals with Delaware were: — 
Lawrence Bohun and Lt. Puttocke (Potocki). 

2) Indians were organized in 40 tribes of about 20,000 
people. After Powhatan's daughter. Pocahontas, married 
John Rolfe in April, 1613, the Indian attacks ceased for 
a time. Powhatan was the chief of 30 tribes. 

3) Nathaniel Bacon was the leader of the colonists' 
revolt against the tyranny of Governor Sir William 
Berkeley's administration. 




ment and Religion. 

WrttunbyCifUine Suirn f /hmetimesGa* 

vernouroftbe Countrq* 


proceedings ofchofe Colonies jfmcc their firft 

departure from England,with the difcourfes, 

Orations,and relations of the Salvages, 

and the accidents that befell 

them in all their Iourmes 

and difcovenes. 

were written out of the writings of 

Doctor Rvsseil. Ri chard Wj efi k. 

Tho.Sttdley. Wiii.Phiiti Puct. 

AnasTodkill. Nathaniel P o v? £ l u 

Ietfra Abot. Richard Pots. 

And the relations of divers other diligent obfervers there 
trefent iben^ndnow many ofrhem m England* 


Printed by Jofeph Barnes* I6*I2< 

Thomas L. Williams. Photo 

Primary Accounts 

These are terse statements . . . only guideposts to the discovery and understanding of the 
historic drama in which Polish Jamestowners took prominent part. 

"Robert, a Polonian," captured an Indian elder in a battle. It is only one heroic episode in 
defense of the colony, heroic enough to be recorded in the testimony of witnesses. 

"Two of the Poles" saved Capt. John Smith's life in the vicinity of the Glass House. 

"Matthew, a Poland er," slain in the Indian massacre of 1620. 

A stirring story of valor, perseverance and sacrifices is hidden within these simple words. 
It needs to be uncovered in further historical research for the edification of posterity. 

"Polonian residents in Virginia" granted enfranchisement and "made as free as any inhabitant 
there whatsoever," after they successfully struck for civic liberties. 

These are only the opening statements in the history yet to be reconstructed from scattered, 
hidden and forgotten records . . . the story of Pioneers of Industry, Defenders of Liberty, Soldiers 
of Political Equality . . . the story to which Conway Whittle Sams has written in "The Conquest 
of Virginia," a beautiful motto: — "All we know of the Poles is to their credit." 




"They Were The First Heroes Of American History'* 

Eyewitness Accounts of: 

Edward Channing, A History of the U. S. 

Captain John Smith 
Richard Wiffin 
William Phettiplace 

Anas Todkill 

Captain William Powell 

William Cantrill 

Sergeant Boothe 
Edward Gurganey 
Edward Waterhouse 

The original Jamestowners who testify to the 
presence of Poles in "the cradle of the Republic," 
are: — Capt. John Smith, who came to the colony 
with the first group of founders, stayed in James- 
town from May 1607 to the end of 1609, was one 
of the leaders of the colony and for a brief period 
its president; Richard Wiffin, William Phetti- 
place, Anas Todkill, Captain Willam Powell, Wil- 
liam Cantrill, Sgt. Bootihe and Edward Gurganey. 

Their writings appear in a collective work. Its 
first part, "A Map of Virginia, With a Description 
of the Countrey, The Commodities, People, Gov- 
ernment and Religion" had been written by Capt. 
Smith in Jamestown in 1608- The second part con- 
sists of reports written by eight Jamestown pio- 
neers as additions to Smith's narrative, — "Where- 

onto is annexed the proceedings of those Colonies, 
since their first departure from England, with the 
discourses, Orations, and relations of the Sal- 
vages, and the accidents that befell them in all 
their Journies and discoveries, — taken faithfully 
as they were written out of the writings of Doctor 
Russel, Thos. Studley, Anas Todkill, Ieffra Abot, 
Richard Wief in, Will. Phettiplace, Nathaniel Pow- 
ell, Richard Potts." The book had been edited by 
Reverend William Simmons and published at Ox- 
ford in 1612. 

In Smith's part (A Map of Virginia, etc.), we 
read: — 

"Muscovia and Poloniai) doe a yearly recaue 
many thousands for pitch, tarre, sope ashes, 


[The Second Part of A Map of VIRGINIA. 1 6 1 *.J 




Virginia since their first beginning from 

England in the yenre of our Lord ibo6, 

till this present 1612, with all their 

accidents that befell them in their 

Iournies and Discoveries. 

Also the Salvages discourses, orations and relations 
of the Bordering neighbours, and how they be- 
came subiect to the English. 

Unfolding even the fundament all causes from -whence haue sprang so many 
miseries to the 'undertakers, and scandals to the businesse : taken faith- 
fully as they were written out of the writings of Thomas 
Studley the first provant maister, Anas Todkill, Walter 
Russell Doctor of Phisicke, N at h ante 11 Powell, 
William Pbettyplace, Richard Wyfjin, Thomas 
Abbay, Tho : Hope, Rich : Pots ana 
the labours of divers other dili- 
gent observers, that were 
residents in Virginia. 

And perused and confirmed by diverse now resident in 
England that were actors in this busines. 

By W. S. 


Printed by Joseph Barnes. 1 6 1 2, 



/ he cim 

Muscovia and Polnnia doe yearely receaue many thou- 
sands, for pitch, tunc, sope ashes, Rosen, Flax, Cordage, 
Sturgeon, masts, yards, wainscot, Firres, glasse, and sue 

Ter, for Wine, Canvas, and Salt ; Spaine asmuch for 
Iron, Steele, Figges, Reasons, and Sackes. Italy with 

Page 360 — "A Map of Virginia." 

Rosen, Flax, Cordage, Sturgeon, masts, yards, 
wainscot, Firres, glasse and such like." 

In the second part (The Proceedings), in a re- 
port signed by Smith's co-pioneers, Wiffin, Phetti- 
place and Todkill, we find three references to the 

In Chapter VII:— 

"As for the hiring of the Poles;) and Dutch, to 
make pitch and tarre, glasse, milles, and soap 
ashes was most necessarie and well." 

In the same chapter the writers list the names 
of the persons who came to Jamestown in Octo- 
ber, 1608, with the second supply. Among the 
names we find "Michael Lowicke, a gentleman," 
and at the end of the list this statement: 

"8 Dutchmen and Poles with divers to the 
number of 70 persons.'^) 

In Chapter IX, under the title of "Howe we 
escape surprizing at Pamaunke," we find a des- 
cription of a struggle between Smith and Indian 
Chief Powhatan (1609) in which we read that 
Smith, returning from the Glasshouse, encoun- 
tered the king of Paspahegh, ''a most stout Sal- 
vage," and — 

"Long they struggled in the water, from whence 
the king, perceiving two of the Poles upon the 
sandes, would haue fled: but the President held 
him by the haire and throat til the Poles came 

In "Generall Historie of Virginia, New Eng- 
land, and the Summer lies with the names of Ad- 
venturers, Planters and Governours from! their 
first beginning An: 1548 to this present 16124" 
(Oxford, 1625), we find six books (chapters), of 
which the first describes early voyages to Amer- 
ica; the second is a reprint with variations of the 
first part of the Map of Virginia; the third is a 
reprint with variations of the Proceedings ; the 
fourth takes up history of Jamestown after 
Smith's departure to the dissolution of the Virginia 
Company in May, 1624; the fifth and sixth chap- 
ters deal with Bermuda and New England. 

In Generall Historie we find a new reference 
by Smith to the Poles in Jamestown : — 

"All this time we had but one Carpenter in the 
Countrey, and three others that could doe little, 

but desisted to be lerners; two Blacksmiths; two 
saylers; and those we write laborers were for 
most part footmen, and such as they could per- 
swade to goe with them, that neuer did know 
what dayes worke was: except the Dutch men 
and Poles and some dozen other." 

In book four, which is a compilation of extracts 
from other narratives interspersed with Smith's 
comments, we find a report signed by Captain 
Nathaniel Powell, William Cantrill, Sergeant 
Boothe and Edward Gurganey, describing a fight 
of the colonists with Indians, in 1616, in which 
two Indian elders were captured: — 

". . . two of their eight Elders, the one tooke 
by Sergeant Boothe, the other by Robert, a Polo- 

In addition to these publications, we have a 
pamphlet written in 1622 by Edward Waterhouse, 
who survived the Indian attack on Jamestown in 
that same year. In it, Waterhouse mentions "Mat- 
thew a Polander" as one of the victims of the 


* * * 

SUMMING UP : — The Poles were in Jamestown 
in 1608, 1609 and 1616; they were hired by the 
Virginia Company of London as experts, to make 
glass, tar, pitch and soap ashes. As the Smith's 
fight with the Indian chief occurred near the Glass 
House, and the Indian "perceived two of the 
Poles," it's obvious that there must have been 
more Poles working in the Glass House. 

(It appears from Generall Historie, that some 
of the Colonials were teaching the Powhatan 
Indians the use of firearms. Smith, determined 
to put a stop to this practice, went to the woods 
in the vicinity of the Glass House "neare a myle 
from James Towne," where "fortie men ... lie in 
Ambuscado for Captaine Smith." Eluding this 
trap, Smith encountered Powhatan). 

l)It is difficult to cite exact figures on the 
Polish trade, but the export of Polish ashes 
Gdansk alone amounted to about 1,000,000 
zlotys (1,500,000 Polish zlotys), or about 37,000 
yearly as late as the 17th century: even in 
century 21,000 barrels of ashes were exported 
through that port. The export of potash to 
amounted at that time to about 15,000 barrel 

the 18th 
s yearly. 


commanded to seize on them they could for prisoner 
which beinj^ done^^xou^n^^^^j^^^^^^ 

i ilium nw* ipi 
wee presently discharged, where twelue 
lay, some dead, the rest for life sprawling on the ground, 
twclue more we tooke prisoners, two whereof were brothers, 
two of their ei^ht Elders, the one tooke by Sergeant 
Bpnlhc, the other by Ruhcrt a I'vlunuiii . 

WW^^W^^W^WW^^^TCkTTti 7 their 
ransomes, which was promised the Souldicrs for a reward, 
"The Fourth Booke of the Proceedings," etc. 

Export of Polish wood, clapboards and other wood 
products amounted annually to 20 million Polish zlotys 
(about 50,000 pounds) in the 18th century, but it must 
have been much higher in the 16th and 17th centuries. 
Polish exports of flax and linen to England was pro- 
portionally large. — Tadeusz Korzon: — Wewne/trzne Dzie- 
je Polski za Stanislawa Augusta. 

2)"It is not surprising to find the Company looking 
abroad and among the seventy settlers who sailed for 
Virginia in the summer of 1608 were "eight Dutchmen 
and Poles," some of whom were glassmakers. The so- 
called Dutchmen undoubtedly came from Germany, for 
Captain John Smith in one of his letters mentions that 
the London Company has sent to Germany and Poland 
for "glasse-men and the rest," "the rest" referring to 
the makers of pitch, tar, soap ashes and clapboard." 

("Glassmaking at Jamestown" by J. C. Harrington) 

3)"The first real step towards permanency came with 
the second supply which brought among its seventy 
new settlers a number of artisans, including the eight 
Dutchmen and Poles . . . Captain John Smith . . . dis- 
patched some of the newcomers to making glass, tar, 
pitch, soap ashes and clapboard." (Ibid). 

4)"The Dutchmen appear to have given trouble from 
the first, and it is doubtful if they ever contributed 
much to the glassmaking effort, beyond possibly as- 
sisting in the initial construction of the glasshouse. We 
know that some of them were carpenters, for they were 
sent to Chief Powhatan's village to build houses for 
the Indians. It appears more likely that the Poles were 
the glassmakers, for Smith, in his account of the fight 
with an Indian near the glasshouse, says that the Indian 
attempted to flee upon "perceiving two of the Poles." 

With the second supply came workmen sent 
over to produce glass, pitch, soap ashes, and other 
items profitable in England. These men, including 
some Poles and Dutchmen, were quickly assigned 
to specific duties. So rapidly did they begin that 
"tryals" of at least one product, glass, were sent 
home when Newport left Jamestown before the 
end of the year. — Charles E. Hatch 

If Jamestown had failed, Spain and France ulti- 
mately might have divided all of North America 
between them and the United States of America 
might never have come into being. 
— Louis B. Wright, Professor of American History 


The Records of The 
Virginia Company 
of London 

The next indisputable evidence of the presence 
of Poles in Jamestown is incorporated in the 
Records of the Virginia Company of London. 

The surviving originals of these records are 
located in 39 different institutions in England and 
America. They were compiled in the years of 1906- 
1935, by Susan Myra Kingsbury and published in 
four volumes by the Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C, 1935. 

In the first three volumes we find references 
to Jamestown Poles, variously described as 
"Polackers," "Polanders" or "Polonians." 

Let's study them: 

Under date of July 21, 1619, in the Court Book 
we read: 

Upon some dispute of the Polonians resident in 
Virginia, it was now agreed (notwithstanding any 
former order to the contrary) that they shall be 
enfranchised, and made as free as any inhabitant 
there whatsoever: and because their skill in making 
pitch and tar and soapashes shall not die with them, 
it is agreed that some young men shall be put unto 
them to learn their skill and knowledge therein for 
the benefit of the country hereafter. (Vol. 1, p. 251). 

Under date of May 17, 1620, reads as follows: 

Pitch and tar: potashes and soap ashes, for the 
making whereof the Polackers are returned to their 
work. (Vol I, p. 353). 

An order dated May 17, 1620, reads as follows: 
For pitch and tar, we advise and require that the 
Polackers be returned in part to these their works, 
with such other assistance as shall be necessary. 
The like we shall desire for Pot-ashes and Sope- 
ashes, when there shall be fit store of hand to as- 
sist them: Requiring in the meane time, the care be 

generally taken, that Seruants and Apprentices be 
so trained up in these works, as that the skill doe 
not perish together with the Masters (The Poles). 
(Vol. III. p. 278). 

For June 22, 1620, there is recorded: 

For hemp and flax, potashes and soapashes, pitch 
and tar. there is a Treaty already on foot, for pro- 
curing of men skillful in those trades from the East- 
ern parts: besides the Polakers yet remaining in 
Virginia. (Vol. III. p. 304). 

Another reference is made in a report in 1622: 
A true list of names of all those that were mas- 
sacred by the treachery of the Savages in Virginia 
at Martin Brandons: Lieutenant Sanders, Ensigne 
Sherley. John Taylor and his wife, two boys, and 
Mathew, a Polander. (Vol. III. p. 569). 
Two other statements refer to claims of Molasco 
the Polander made against the company in person 
at the business sessions in 1623 and 1624. The 
first reference is made on February 19, 1623: 

Molasco the Polander likewise earnestly besought 
that his petition might be read alleging that he had 
attended about a quarter of a year, and the Earl of 
Southhampton said that if his case were as he were 
informed he had suffered much wrong. 

Mr. Deputy said that he was not altogether ignor- 
ant of the matter but know that there was so foul 
oppression that had been used to the poor man, and 
likewise upon divers others in the like cases as he 
was afraid, both the Companies and the Plantations 
did to the weight of their own sins suffer God pun- 
ishment for these former offences: Wherefore he 
thought it most necessary to endeavor the righting 
of him. but thai was to be done according to the 
form prescribed by the Quarter Court: In this Court 
it could not be done his case being very long and 
somewhat intricate: Whereupon the Earl of South- 
hampton willed Mr. Deputy with all convenient 
speed that might be to call the Committee to whom 
the matter was referred that so the Court might 
do him justice: Which Mr. Deputy promised. (Vol. 
II. p. 279). 
The second reference is dated February 2, 1624 : 
Molasco the Polander petitioning for such money 
he said his maties: Commissioners found due unto 
him from the Company was answered that the 
Company made it appear by their answer to ye said 
commissioners that he was not to be satisfied from 
them but from such as have received great allow- 
ances from the Company for satisfaction of him and 
the rest of the Polanders as appeared upon the 
Company's Accounts. (Vol. II, p. 510). 

In addition to these the Company records con- 
tain five more references to Poland, June 12, 1620: 
For pitch and tar, true it is, that as some quan- 
tity hath hithertofor bee named, so may there be 
some hereafter, but some here that have lived long 
in Poland's principal country for that commodity, 
there be whole forests of pytch trees and none else, 
and that for four and five hundred miles together 
in this part of Virginia the same kind of trees grow 
but scattering one here and one there, and may 
indeed be employed to that use but with great labor, 
and as great loss. (Vol. Ill, p. 303). 

On June 22, 1620, we read : 

The masts, planks and boards, the pilch and tar, 
the potashes and soapashes, the hemp and flax, 
which now we fetch from Norway, Denmark, Po- 
land, and Germany, are there to be had in abund- 
ence and great perfection. (Vol. Ill, p. 308). 

Under date of November 13, 1620, we find : 
A certain writing was exhibited to the court by 
one Gabriel Wisher a man well known to some of 
this Company, who understanding that divers staple 
commodities are intended to be set up in Virginia 
makes offer to this Company to procure out of Po- 
land* and Sweadland (where he is well acquainted) 
men skillful in making of pilch and tar, potashes and 
soapashes, clapboards, and pipestames, dressers of 
hemp and flax. (Vol. I, p. 420). 

The entry for December 13, 1620, reads: 

Gabriel Wisher having presented himself unto the 
court with offer of his service for procuring men 
skillful in divers commodities out of Sweadland and 
Poland at an easy charge so he might have his mats. 
(Vol. I. p. 430). 

In a report given on June 19, 1622, we read: 
And as for Captain Hazell he is neither Adven- 
turer in the Company nor planter in Colony but a 
mere stranger to bothe otherwise known to them 
then as an Interpreter to a Polonian Lord. (Vol. 
II. p. 42). 

SUMMING UP:— The Jamestown statements in 
the Record of the Virginia Company disclose that 
the Poles were skilled workers and instructors 
(masters), who made pitch, tar and soapashes in 
1619 and 1620 ; that they became involved in suc- 
cessful dispute over enfranchisement in 1619, and 
that one of their number, "Matthew a Polander" 
perished in the Indian massacre of 1622, and one, 
"Molasco the Polander" souigiht redress for his 
sufferings and injustices. 

'We learn from the narrative that the first names ofjthree of the 
Dutchmen were, Adam. Francis mid Samuel. They proved to he 
undesirable additions to the Colony. All we know of the Poles is 
to their credit. 

•Smith's Hisforv <>f v;. ■„;..;.• " -" ' 

Page 823 — Conway Whittle Sams' "The Conquest of Virginia" 


Sty? Sworfca of 
StyV Hirgmta Glompang of llmtfrm 





JVLY 2U 1619 


L so 

V as 

\ sh 

Vpon some dispute of the Polonians resident in Virginia, it was now 
agreed (notw^standing any former order to the contrary) that they 
shalbe' enfranchized, and made as free as any inhabitant there what- 
soeuer: And because their skill in making pitch & tarr and sope- 
ashees shall not dye w ,h them, it is agreed that some young men, 
shalbe put vnto them to learne their skill & knowledge therein for 
the benefitt of the Country hereafter. [33] 

^Political relations between England and Poland were, 
on the whole, very friendly during the last decades of 
the 16th and the first decades of the 17th centuries. The 
Polish King Stefan Batory (1575-1586) and his wise 
chancellor Jan Zamoyski, took great care to keep up this 

Queen Elizabeth, on the other hand, highly prized the 
friendship of Poland, not only because of her politics 
directed against the Habsburgs, but also because Poland 
was then in an important position in the English foreign 

During the first years of Batory's successor, King 
Zygmunt III (1587-1632), friendly relations between the 
countries were continued. They cooled off for a time 
when Zygmunt showed a leaning towards the Habs- 
burgs, but with the ascension to the throne of James I 
they soon improved. 


King Charles I continued this policy. He even planned 
to marry his niece to King Wladyslaw IV (1632-48), 
Zygmunt's son and successor. 

"No nation loved and esteemed your Poles more than 
nations subject to us," wrote Charles I to Wladyslaw 
on January 17, 1634. 

Many Polish nobles visited England during this period. 
A noteworthy event, too, was the Scotch immigration to 
Poland, which assumed quite large proportions in the 
16th and 17th centuries. — Stanistaw Kot: — Anglo-Polo- 

At the time of the Poles' strike for enfranchise- 
ment — "Provision was made for a General As- 
sembly to be held once yearly with power to make 
laws. The Assembly would be composed of the 
Governor and Council and two burgesses from 
each plantation freely elected by the inhabitants 
thereof. Thus began in America government of 
the people, for the people and by the people." 

-F. D. Ribble 


The4 debarked from the Sailer Mary and Margaret. . .paon mere followed b*( others 
and the number of Fblish pioneers grew throughout the history of Jamestown. . 
they mere instrumental in saving the colony fiwn failure... in Wilding the Glasshouse, v. 
in nanufacture of gloss, pitch, tar avd potash.. .in saving the fife of Copt. John Smith.. ; , 
in winning the first strike for civic liberties in the Neiu World. 


So-, *.„.„„ 

■' j:&J 



r;e ucunq ^e'-. ^ri^cjj pur m- 

'';," ■■'■-/ '-".JTi.'-v- J 


Outside Exhibit prepared by the Polish Am erican Congress in consultation with the Colonial 
National Historical Park branch of the Department of the Interior, and accepted for display at the 
historic Glass House site by the Jamestown Committee Association for the Preservation of Virginia 



Secondary accounts, or reconstructions of the 
Jamestown events and the Poles' participation in 
them, are based on primary sources and were 
written by several students of the early American 
history. Foremost among- them are: — 

Rev. Waclaw Kruszka, author of Historia Polska 
w Ameryce (1937) ; 

Miecislaus Haiman, eminent Polish-American 
historian and journalist who published four essays 
about the Polish Jamestowners — Z Przeszlosci 
Polskiej w Ameryce (1927), Polish Pioneers of 
Virginia and Kentucky (1937) and Polish Past in 
America— 1608-1865 (1939) ; 

Dr. Karol Wachtl, well known journalist, poet 
and historian, who, in his Polonia w Ameryce, 
gave the names and. places of origin of the first 
Polish pioneers in Jamestown.* 

We are reprinting herewith Haiman's essay 
originally published in the Polish Past in America. 

Poles in America 

Miecislaus Haiman 

(Polish Past in America, 
Polish Roman Catholic Union, 1939) 

Poland influences the founding of English col- 
onies in America. — The beginnings of Virginia 
also mark the beginnings of the history of Polish 
immigration in this country. To some degree, Po- 
land influenced the founding of that oldest Eng- 
lish colony in America. 

Early in the 17th century England suffered a 
heavy economic crisis. The destruction of her for- 
ests for commercial purposes threatened the very 
existence of her industry, especially three of its 
most important branches: ship building, wool 
manufactures and foundries. All three required 
great quantities of lumber, wood and wood prod- 
ucts. To supply these needs England was forced 
to import large quantities of those materials from 

foreign countries, particularly from Poland. The 
main purpose of the Plymouth Company and of 
the Virginia Company of London, chartered by 
James I, for the colonization of North America, 
was to make England independent of Polish and 
other imports. 

Pioneers of American History. — Jamestown was 
founded in 1607, by the first immigrants sent by 
the Virginia Company. A year later, in October 
1608, the Poles appeared for the first time in the 
colony. They arrived with the Second Supply en- 
gaged by the Company as experts and instructors 
in the manufacture of glass and pitch, tar and 
other products which Poland exported to England. 
The exact number of this group is not known, 
but they were not more than a handful. 

Immediately after their arrival the Poles started 
their work. They built a glass furnace about a mile 
from Jamestown and cut down the first trees for 
wood manufactures ; in a short time they were 
able to send to England the first samples of their 
work which were in fact the first products of 
American industry. However, their labors soon 
met with great obstacles. Indians, pestilence and 
famine attacked the colony. 

The winter of 1609-1610 was especially severe 
and became known in the history of Virginia as 
"starving time"; of four hundred colonists only 
sixty survived. Worst of all, however, was the 
disorder which reigned in the colony. Most of the 
first settlers were the famous "vagabond gentle- 
men" who were accustomed to easy life and came 
to Virginia in quest of fabulous gold mines. In 
contrast to them, the Poles conducted themselves 
very creditably. Captain John Smith who did not 
mince words when speaking of his lazy country- 
men, spoke of the Poles in terms of the highest 
praise. "They," said he, meaning the colonists gen- 
erally, "never did know what a day's work was 
except the Dutcnmen and Poles." Later documents 
speak of the Poles with praises, too, and the Vir- 
ginia Company tried, not without success, to in- 
duce more of them to come over from Europe. 

the liyringof llie Poles and Dulr/i-invw, to make Piirli, Tar. 
(ilasse, Millcs, ;nxl Sope ashes, when llie (onntn is replen- 
ished with people, and necessaries, would liaue done well, 
hut to send thcni and seaurnlie more without vjetualls to 
worke. was not so well aduised nor considered of. as it should 
haue licene 

i'e were- l.iO that wanted lor our seines. 
For we h;ul the Salvages in that i/rrorum (their harvest be- 
irn: newly gathered,) that, we feared not to art victuals for 

Page 193— "The Discoveries and Accidents." 




















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Adventurers brought to attend them, or such as they 

could perswade to goe with them, that neuer did know 
what a dayes worke was: except the D«ic/z-men and Poles, 
and some dozen other. For all the rest were poore Gentle- 
%■■ ~" n Tr.irllelsmen. Servine-men. libertines, and such lilr»> 

Page 434 — Edward Arber's "Travels and Works of Capl. Smith." 



With some intermissions the manufacture of 
wood products by the Poles in Virginia lasted till 
about 1622. The massacre of that year, in which 
some Poles also perished, was a fatal stroke to its 

Poles save Captain Smith's life. — The Virginia 
Poles distinguished themselves also as soldiers. 
The first instance of their bravery is recorded in 
1609 ; when the Indians set an ambush to kill Cap- 
tain Smith the Poles saved his life and captured 
an Indian Chief. In 1616, during Governor Yeard- 
ley's administration, a "Robert a Polonian" dis- 
tinguished himself in an expedition against the 

Pioneers of American liberty. — In 1619, during 
the second administration of Governor Yeardley, 
a limited autonomy was introduced in tlhie colony. 
On July 30th, the first legislative assembly on 
the American continent met at Jamestown. How- 
ever, some of the inhabitants were denied the 
right to representation. Among the disfranchised 
were the Poles, and this made them so indignant, 
that they decided to cease working till the in- 
justice would be removed. This was the first 
strike in the history of the United States. 

The dispute assumed such proportions that 
Yeardley was forced to report it to the Council 
at London. The Poles won in the end. 

The records of the Company mention under the 
date of July 3rd. 1619: 

"Upon some dispute of the Polonians resident 
in Virginia, it was now agreed (notwithstanding 
any former order to the contrary) that they shall 
be enfranchised and made as free as any inhabit- 
ant there whatsoever: and because their skill in 
making pitch and tar and soap ashes shall not die 
with them, it is agreed that some young men shall 
be put unto them to learn their skill and know- 
ledge therein for tihe benefit of the country here- 

This first strike of the Poles in Virginia, not 
for economical advantages, but for political rights, 
may be justly regarded as the first struggle and 
the first victory for the cause of freedom on this 

*Wachtl, quoting Wiesci Polskie, published in London 
in 1831, lists the following Polish pioneers, who arrived 
in Jamestown in October, 1608: — Michal Lowicki, Zbi- 
gniew Stefanski, Jan Mata, Stanislaw Sadowski, Karol 
Zrenica and Jan Bogdan. The evidence, supporting this 
list, however, appears to be of a presumptive type and 
is not yet based on ascertained facts. More research in 
this field is needed. 

Recalls Aid To 
Colony By Poles 

Cites Testimony by Capt. Smith 
in His Book 


(Reprinted from The Monitor) 

First factory in United States, 1608: Festivities 
at Jamestown, Va., commemorating the 350th 
anniversary of the founding of the 1st permanent 
English settlement there in 1607 recall the fact 
that artisans* from Catholic Poland operated a 
glassworks there in 1608, the first factory in 
America. During the year's festival celebration, 
members of the American Flint Glassworkers Un- 
ion, dressed in costumes of 17th century crafts- 
men, will demonstrate how the glass was made. 

Jamestown, Va.: The arrival in Virginia of 
artisans in 1608 from Catholic Poland saved from 
failure the first permanent English settlement in 

This is the testimony of the leader of the colo- 
nists, Capt. John Smith, recorded in a book pub- 
lished in London in 1630, The True Travels, Ad- 
ventures, and Observations of Capt. John Smith. 

The colony was founded at Jamestown in 1607, 
by the Virginia Company of London, chartered by 
James I, and financed in part by lotteries. It was 
hoped that the colonists would soon be sending 
back to England imports badly needed for her 

However, the "gentlemen adventurers" who ac- 
companied Captain Smith on the first voyage were 
more interested in searching for gold. They prov- 
ed unequal to the tough job of chopping out 
wilderness, and fighting off the Indians. With 
food and other supplies dwindling, Smith besought 
his backers in London to send him some car- 
penters, blacksmiths, masons, and other artisans. 

Arriving with the second supply, aboard the 
40-ton ship God Speed, in October 1608, were 
"'Dutchmen and Poles," some of whom were glass- 
makers and carpenters, recruited by the London 
Co. in Germany and Poland. 



Twelve Sal- 

vages s/aine, 



taken, and 



jeing done according to our direction, the Captaine. 
gave the word, and wee presently discharged, wherel 
twelve lay, some dead, the rest for life sprawling on the' 
ground, twelve more we tooke prisoners, two whereof 
were brothers, two of their eight Elders, the one tooke | 
by Sergeant Boothe, the other by Robert a Polonian ; 


\JJ fX C T"»f»* r *»v* » ca 

A +\yc 

rmlHiPrc tnr fX rPWQtV 

Page 234— "The Generall Hislorie of Virginia," Vol. 

Polish Artisans 

The Poles, the first to come to America, were 
engaged as artisans and instructors in the manu- 
facture of glass, pitch, tar, soap ashes, and other 

They immediately set to work and within 3 
weeks had a roaring fire going under a glass fur- 
nace. This was the first factory in America. Within 
a short time samples of their work, presumably 
the green glass bottles and vases of that period, 
were sent back to England. These were the first 
"Made in America" items snipped abroad. 

The exact location of the original factory was 
discovered in 1931 by the late Jesse Dimmick, 
owner of the land known for centuries as "Glass- 
House Point." 

However, it was not until 1948 and 1949 that 
archaeologists from the National Park Service 
researched, explored, and excavated the site of 
the factory. They found the remains of the fur- 
naces, crucible, and pot fragments and melted 
and marked pieces of glass. 


These discoveries, plus study and research in 
England, enabled the experts to reconstruct the 
17th-century glasshouse at a cost of $100,000, the 
joint project of the Jamestown Glasshouse Foun- 
dation, Inc., and the National Park Service, United 
States Department of the Interior. 

During the Jamestown 350th Anniversary Fes- 
tival glass is again manufactured here. The demon- 
strators, dressed in costumes of the 17th century, 
are members of the American Flint Glass Workers' 
Union, who also contributed generously to financ- 
ing the project. 

Some of the Poles were also engaged in the 
early years in the manufacture of clapboards and 
other wood products, whicn were shipped back 
to England. Others served as soldiers. 

In 1609 it was recorded that when the Indians 
set an ambush to kill Captain Smith, the Poles 
saved his life and captured an Indian chief. Men- 
tion is also made of "Robert, a Polonian" who in 
1616 during Governor Yeardley's administration 
distinguished himself against the Indians. 

Capacity For Hard Work 

There is no mention in the records of the Vir- 
ginia Company that these first Poles to come to 
America took the oath of supremacy and allegiance 
to the King and Church of England, which called 
for repudiation of the Pope and See of Rome. 


Skilled craftsmen and artisans were so badly 
needed and so difficult to recruit it is doubtful 
that they were required to take the oath usually 
administered to the colonists. It is not disclosed in 
the official records of the colony that those among 
them who were Catholic remained Catholic or 
had their spiritual needs provided for. 

Imbued with a capacity for hard work, the Poles 
also had a flaming love for freedom. It was they 
who struck the first blow for civil liberty in 
America. In 1619 when a limited autonomy was 
introduced into the colony, the first legislative as- 
sembly on the American continent met at James- 
town. The Poles, along with some others, were 
denied the right to vote because they were in- 
dentured for the cost of their voyage. 

They were so indignant that they refused to 
work in the glasshouse until they were enfran- 
chised. And thus began the first strike in the 
history of the United States. 

The matter was of such importance that Gov- 
ernor Yeardley reported it to the Council in Lon- 
don. A manuscript in the Library of Congress 
shows that the Poles won the strike for their polit- 
ical rights. Under date of July 3, 1619, the Court 
Book of the Virginia Company of London (vol. I, p. 
32) records that the "Polonaise resident in Vir- 
ginia" are now "enfranchised and made as free as 
any inhabitant there whatsoever." And this was 
their victory for equal suffrage in America. 

References to the Jamestown Poles and to Poland 
are also made in the following publications: 

Dr. Andrew Bode: — Fyrst Booke of the Introduction to 
knowledge, London, 1542. 

A True Declaration of the Estate of the Colonie in 
Virginia, London, 1610. 

Records of American Catholic Historical Society, Vol. 

Maud Sellers: — The Acts and Ordinances of the East- 
land Company, London, 1906. 

Alexander Brown: — The Genesis of the United States, 
Boston, 1890. 

Lyon Gardiner: — The Cradle of the Republic, Rich- 
mond, Va., 1900. 

Conway Whittle Sams: — The Conquest of Virginia. 
The Second Attempt, Norfolk, Va., 1929. 

Edward Eggleston:— The Beginners of a Nation, New 
York, 1896. 

(See preface; also footnote on page 16) 




(See footnote on page 16) 


"I Want to Greet You — the Descendants 
of Our Early Settlers in the New World" 

An Address by A. D. Chandler, 

President of the College of 

William and Mary 

(Delivered at Jamestown Observance, October 18, 1953— 
the 345th anniversary of the landing of Poles in America) 

If I were to fail to say at the outset that I am 
honored to have the privilege to participate in this 
ceremony, I would be less than truthful. I want 
to thank you and your president for inviting me. 

I want to greet you— the descendants of our 
early settlers in the New World. 

This area has long been renowned for keeping 
alive the heritage of Virginia and the nation. The 
college which I serve has been distinguished for 
its alumni who played a leading role in the 
making of the nation and in the education of our 
youth, Jefferson, one of our alumni, founded the 
University of Virginia. I could list innumerable 
alumni who made the heritage of this great nation 
and who played and are playing a dynamic role 
in keeping it alive. 

We in Virginia feel that Jamestown is hallowed 
ground because this area is the monument to the 
spreading of the European influence in America. 

Not far from where we meet today, there was 
established three hundred and forty five years ago, 
the first industry in what is now the United States 
of America. 

The First Seeds 

We are all here to commemorate that event, 
and to honor the memories of the five men from 
Poland who planted the first seeds from which 
has grown the greatest industrial nation under 

Jamestown was founded in 1607, two years be- 
fore this historical event. The first settlers were, 
in the main, a band of gentlemen adventurers 
lured here by the myth that the shores of the New 
World were strewn with gold. It took the example 
of the Polish glass makers to demonstrate to the 
colonists that the treasures of Virginia were in 
its soil, not nuggets to be had for picking. 

Need Of Stout Hearts 

There was ample wealth, but it required strong 
arms, stout hearts, and technical knowledge to 
convert it into coin. 

Only thirty-two of the original band of one 
hundred and five settlers survived the first two 
winters in Virginia. When the second group ar- 
rived with seventy recruits for the new colony, 

Captain John Smith warmly welcomed the five 
Polish artisans among them, not only because they 
were what Jamestown most needed — skilled work- 
men — but because he knew them as representa- 
tives of a sturdy, industrious, liberty loving nation. 

John Smith had reason to respect and admire 
the Poles. Only a few years before, in Christian 
Europe's wars with the infidels, he had been cap- 
tured by the Turks and led into slavery. All of 
Southeastern Europe was then held by the Mo- 
hammedans and the first Christian sanctuary the 
fugitive found was in Poland. In the book he 
later wrote, called The True Travels, John Smith 
describes how he crossed Poland, aided every foot 
of the way by the people unmatched in his experi- 
ence for, as he said it, "Respect, Mirth, Content 
and Entertainment," who insisted on loading him 
with gifts before sending him on to the next town. 

First Factory 

These first Polish settlers to America soon prov- 
ed Smith's confidence. Allotted a tract of land 
about one 'mile from the fort, which was the only 
building — -they immediately set to work to build 
their little factory. When the English ship was 
ready to sail back across the Atlantic, it carried 
a full line of samples which the glass-makers were 
prepared to turn out in commercial quantities, 
as well as a cargo of pitch, or tar, distilled from 
Virginia's pine trees, and other products of the 
field and forest which the so-called "Polonians" 
had manufactured. 

These five men proved to be such an asset to 
the first English colony that more of their fellow 
countrymen were invited to settle here. In a few 
years fifty Poles were living in Jamestown. As 
was the custom then, almost all of the colonists 
worked out their passage by pledging themselves 
to work for the company which owned the settle- 
ment. Thus, in from two to three years, the im- 
migrant's labor had repaid the company for the 
passage by ship from Europe, and they duly 
became free citizens of the community. 

Love Of Freedom 

That brings us to another first event in America, 
the first blow for civil liberty and the right to 
citizenship on equal terms, which the Polish 
colony, in the Virginia of three centuries ago, 
successfully registered. 

In the year 1619 the Jamestown colony was 
granted a form of self-government by the London 
company. That was a memorable year for the thriv- 
ing little colony, destined within three years to be 


Gloss making 



all but wiped out in an Indian, massacre. In 1619 
a shipload of women arrived, women who were 
willing to brave the hard life on the frontiers of 
a new country just to get husbands. There wasn't 
one who was not on her honeymoon before sunset 
on the day of their landing. 

I wonder how many of the young women, who 
complain today how hard it is to catch a husband, 
would take the same gamble? 


At any rate, as history reveals, the Jamestown 
colony was then divided into boroughs, boroughs 
in which every man who had worked up his in- 
debtedness to the London company was given the 
right to vote. Every man, that is, except the half-a- 
hundred Poles, who incidentally, monopolized the 
industries of Jamestown. The British colonists, de- 
pendent as they were on their Polish fellowsettlers, 
arbitrarily decided that citizenship should be a 
privilege reserved for their own special group. 

The same undemocratic spirit, unfortunately, 
still survives to much in the world today. Too 
many persons, who falsely think themselves "the 
best kind of American, sometimes look down on 
their fellow citizens, forgetting that all the people 
in America, who are not Indians, are descendants 
of immigrants, whether they came here 300 or 30 
years ago. 

Well, the Polish colonists in Virginia protested. 
They said they were as good Americans as any 
of the rest who came to America with them or 
even later. When their protests were ignored 
they said. "Okey" (for however you say it in 
Polish) no citizenship, no work." 

Not Exactly A Strike 

So they closed down the glass factory, the tar 
distillery, the soap works and spent their days 
fishing and dancing the polka. 

Perhaps you could call it the first strike in 
America, except that the Polonians were not 
quitting work on an employer. They shut down 
their own industries. Except for the few pounds 
of tobacco the colonists were beginning to ex- 
port, practically all of the profits realized by 
the London Company came from the re-sale of 
the products of the Polish industries. The James- 
town government quickly realized that if it sent 
empty ships back to England, the consequences 
could be very unpleasant. 

And so, members of the Jamestown General As- 
sembly quickly declared their Polish fellow — 
colonists to have full citizenship with every right 
of the vote and equal representation. Thereafter 
the community prospered in peace and unity. The 
colony grew far beyond the borders of the little 
point of land where the first colonists had built 
their log fort and crude glass factory, despite bitter 
factional quarrels between, what we would call, 
rival political machines. 

Indian Attack 

Then, in March 1622, the Indians of this region, 
alatrmed at the spread of the pale-faces, rose and 
massacred more than 300 of the colonists and 
burned farm houses and factories. It was a blow 
from which Jamestown never recovered. The 
London Company went into bankruptcy, and 
other settlements in Virginia soon outstripped the 
first colony. Later, Jamestown was the ruin, it 
appears to be today. Jamestown is a monument 
to the thrift, the industry, the courage and the 
love of liberty, of those earliest of our colonists. 
These virtues were exemplified by the Poles in 

That monument can never be ruined. Every 
passing year will see it grow greater and brighter. 

A Prayer 

In the centuries succeeding the establishment of 
Jamestown, hundreds of thousands of Poles have 
followed the footsteps of these first immigrants, 
to weave into the fabric of America the industry, 
the poetry, the music, the arts and the sciences, 
which Poland has contributed to the welfare of 
the world since history began. Pulaski and Ko- 
sciuszko today are names as American as Jefferson, 
Adams and Hamilton. 

Let us pray that the Polish spirit which has 
helped America become great, will some day very 
soon free the mother country from the slavery 
imposed upon it by the monster, Communism. 



















Frankly Speaking . . . 


Most of us think that anyone with a name ending 
in "ski" is of a generation of newcomers, fresh 
from the old country. 

And a lot of people also assume that anyone 
with a name that has a combination of "z" and "c" 
is of parentage that came to this country in the 
steerage of huge ocean liners filled with im- 
migrants from mid-Europe. 

But it's high time we came to realize that the 
people with names ending in "ski" have been in 
this country as long as the Smiths and the Jeffer- 
sons, the Randolphs and the others with more pro- 
nounceable names. 

Too Little About Poles 

I guess a great deal of what we know about 
peoples in American history depends upon how 
well certain historians have popularized certain 

Up until now, there's been too little published 
about the contributions of the Poles, for example. 

The average American, I'm sure, has an idea 
that the Poles in our country came here along 
about the 1880s or soon after that . . . and the im- 
migration from Poland was stepped up in the early 
part of the 20th Century. 

Also, the same average American thinks that 
the only Poles who ever made any contribution 
to this country before the last decade of the 19th 
Century were Kosciuszko and Pulaski. 

I certainly don't want to depreciate the valiant 
services these two noted Poles gave to these 
United States — particularly Pulaski, who died 
for the young democracy. 

But now along comes Vincent J. Kowalewski, 
of the Polish American Congress in Delaware, and 
sends me a brochure that has opened my eyes. 

Another John Smith Story 

Every American school kid knows that an Indian 
girl, Pocahontas, saved the life of the fabulous 
Capt. John Smith but — 

How many know that two Poles, Zbigniew Ste- 
fanski and Jan Bogdan, also saved the life of the 
intrepid captain when he was about to be ambush- 
ed by Indians? 

We read a great deal about the first families of 
Virginia, etc., but not enough about those first 
Poles who helped to save Jamestown from total 

They Were Skilled Craftsmen 

Let's go back a little in American history and 
pause at the year 1607. 

That was the year when Jamestown was found- 
ed by the Virginia Company of London. 

The newcomers were faced with all kinds of 
problems in the new world. They especially need- 
ed skilled craftsmen, whose services were essential 
to the survival of the colony. 

Where to get them? 

The Englishmen remembered that for years 
Poland had been England's principal source of 
pitch, tar, rosin, flax, masts, wainscots, and glass. 

England Turns To Poland 

There England could enlist the craftsmen for 
the great adventure in the new world. 

And so on Oct. 1, 1608 — 350 years ago — the ship 
Mary and Margaret arrived in Jamestown with a 
company of Poles. The roster contained such 
names as Michael Nowicki, Stanislaw Sadowski, 
Jan Mata — all journeymen in the crafts that were 
badly needed. And they were soldiers, too, good 

Within three weeks after the Poles arrived in 
Jamestown, things began to hum. A glass furnace 
was roaring— the first factory in America. 

And within two months, the ship Mary and 
Margaret was on its way to England with Ameri- 
can-made materials — the first export of manu- 
factured goods — soap ashes, tar, pitch, green glass 
bottles and vases. 

The Big Strike 

Later, other Poles arrived. They were dreamers, 
too, and adventurers, in a way — but they also had 
a very practical outlook on life. The romantic 
stories of early America just never gave them a 

Then came the big strike for civil liberties. 

Fed up with the finagling in the colony of 
Jamestown, Captain John Smith decided to re- 
turn to England. The Poles refused to stay behind. 
They'd have none of the shenanigans. 

They went to London but not for long. The 
Virginia Company implored them to return to 
Jamestown and help the colonists attain industrial 
self-sufficiency. Reluctantly, the Poles agreed but 
on one major condition: There were to be more 
rights for the people. 

Denied Vole 

Everything went along all right until they were 
denied the right to vote for members of the legis- 
lative assembly. 


And the reason? 

A flimsy and vicious one. 

It was said that the Poles couldn't vote because 
they were still in debt for their passage from 
England to America. 


All right — so the Poles just went on s 
They stopped working in the glass factory. 

Gov. George Yeardley tried to reason with the 
Poles — but he probably never bumped up against 
the dogged stubbornness of Poles sticking up for 
what they believe are their rights. Some of the 
most infamous dictators of Europe have had apples 
out of that barrel, even in our day. 

The Strike Ends 

The whole mess became a first class stench 
that seeped over to England, and eventually it 
was decided that "concessions be made to the 
Polanders" — and the strike was ended. 

The first strike in America — not for economic 
gains but for civil liberty! 

All this and a lot more about the contributions 
of Polish craftsmen and workers are to be found 
in the dusty annals of American history, hidden 
far too long. 

It is most refreshing to learn that Poles all over 
the United States are going to observe the 350th 
anniversary of the arrival of the first Polish im- 
migrants to these shores. 

It should knock the theory that Poles are "fur- 
riners" into a cocked hat. 

In the year 1600, it is estimated that the total 
native (Indian) population of Virginia was about 
20,000. Of that number, some 2,000 descendants, 
mostly mixed bloods, are living- today. Of these, 
the Chickahominy and the Pamunkey still retain 
some vestiges of their tribal organization — the 
last visible remnant of the once proud Powhatan 

—Matthew W. Stirling 




IJisit ^America s 

First Industry-GLASS 

MARCH 31st TO DECEMBER ist, 1958 

1 QS8 marl<s tne 3S°th Anniversary of GLASS 
•*■ 7»JO manufacturing in America. And, the 
chief anniversary exhibit is the replica of the First 
Glass Factory, originally built in i<o8 by Virginia 
Colonists at Glasshouse Point, near Jamestown. In 
fact, GLASS was the First industry to be establish- 
ed in this country. 

The remains of the original factory were first 
discovered in 1931. With the invaluable aid of 
National Park Service archaeologists, an exact 
reconstruction of the factory was recently completed 
by the Jamestown Glasshouse Foundation and the 
National Park Service, in Colonial National His- 
torical Park, adjoining the Jamestown Festival 

Last year, the attendance of hundreds of thou- 
sands of people from all parts of the United States, 
proved the exhibit to be one of the high points of 
the Festival. The response was so overwhelming 
that during 1958 the Glasshouse is again 

OPEN from March 31st until December ist 
DAILY from 10 a. m. to 5:30 p. m. 

You will see glassworkers costumed in authen- 
tic colonial garb, working with the tools and in the 
manner of the period. Their handcrafted glass 
products are illustrative of the time-tested skills 
required in the Glass Industry, both in the past 
and the present. 

Invest a small amount of time and you and 
your family can step into a World of History- 
Come-Alive. You will find this exhibit unique, 
imaginative, educational. Make plans NOW . . . 
See GLASS made at the only 17th Century operat- 
ing glasshouse in the world. 

Sponsored by the 



A Non-Piofil Organization of 
America's Leading Class Producers 


; ^ j 

fe r*' 





e$ ':.. 


F7V5/ meeting of Virginia's General Assembly in a Jamestown church in 1619. 

Universal Suffrage Was The 
Primary Motive Of The Strike 


in Ihe House of Representalives 

Amorugi the passengers were a handful of 
strong, rugged artisans, who along with Capt. 
Smith, labored in the woods with their axes, 
making a clearing and setting up the first fac- 
tories in the new world. To this group Smith later 
gave credit for saving the colony of Jamestown 
and in effect for insuring that America would 
develop as an English-speaking nation. Yet oddly- 
enough, these artisans were not Englishmen, but 
were the earliest Polish immigrants to this coun- 

A few years later the Poles set another pre- 
cedent in their adopted land. At the time of the 
election in Virginia of the first legislative body 
in America, only natives of England were to be 
allowed to vote. With justifiable indignance, the 
Poles successfully staged America's first strike — 
laying down their tools until they were granted 
full equality with the other colonists. Economic 
gain was not the primary motive, but rather the 

establishment of the principle of universal suf- 

The number of Poles in our country and their 
American-born descendants have grown rapidly 
from the small handful of artisans in Jamestown. 
Today they total nearly seven million. 

But the essential character of these people has 
never changed. Endowed with an astounding ca- 
pacity for hard work and a love for freedom that 
has been denied to them in the mother-land Po- 
lish immigrants have chosen to join others in 
their fight for independence. In the American 
Revolution, for example, the muster rolls of the 
Continental Army reveal at least a thousand 
"ski's" and wicz's" -and other unmistakably Po- 
lish immigrants have chosen to join others in 
young volunteers, Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Casi- 
mir Pulaski. Beth possessed a love of liberty 
knowing' no national borders, and saw America's 
struggle for freedom as their own. Kosciuszko 
was the first foreign officer to arrive here, sailing 
at his own expense to offer his services to Gene- 
ral Washington even before the Declaration of 
Independence had been signed. 



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Virginia* New -England, an&lne ftummtT lies, 




AN. 1584. TO THIS PRESENT 1626 








•1 rtlOSE COUJfTRYES, TIIFin < .•vmwih m s. I'KwiTi UOVEKNMEM CUSTOMS" 

AM' KEL1UION V i.l" ivViWNh 






Vol. II. 

FROM THE London Flu Hon (»F Mr! 1 

RICH Mono 

fttpubhshu' -it mi y i tijiin pce.»B 

WilHnia W linn I'rintd 

1 H I 9. 


Gratefully We Acknowledge 

It is a high privilege to bear witness to the 
blood. Gratefully we acknowledge the services of 
Pulaski and Kosciuszko — whose very names are 
of the imperishable record of American indepen 
women of Polish blood, who have united their d 
days of Colonial settlement; in the war to attain 
emerged our national unity; in the great journe 
the Pacific; on farms or in town or city — thro 
contribution to the upbuilding of our institutions 

(Excerpts from an address of Franklin Del 
on the occasion of reinterment of remains 
National Cemetery, October 11, 1937). 

debt which this country owes to men of Polish 

those intrepid champions of human freedom — 
watchwords of liberty and whose deeds are part 
dence . . . They and the millions of other men and 
estinies with those of America — whether in the 

independence ; in the hard struggle out of which 
yings across the Western Plains to the slopes of 
ugh all of our history they have made their full 

and to the fulfillment of our national life. 

ano Roosevelt, President of the United States, 
of General Wladimir Krzyzanowski at Arlington 

& & 


The 350th Anniversary 


of Pennsylvania 


Mr. FLOOD. Mr. Speaker, the earliest Polish 
settlers in this country arrived in October 1608 
in Jamestown, Va., just 1 year after the founding 
of this historic town. That is the first landmark 
of Poles in America, and I am indeed glad that 
its 350th anniversary is being celebrated this 

We do not know with certainty how many Poles 
were in that immigrant first group ; probably they 
were not more than a handful. It is said that they 
were brought here "as experts and instructors 
in the manufacture of glass and pitch, tar and 
other products" which Poland exported to Eng- 
land in those days. Near Jamestown they built 
a glass furnace, and in a short time they were 
able to send to England the first samples of their 
work ; these were the first products of American 
industry. Thus the earliest Polish settlers in 
America were artisans and technicians, and as 
such they contributed greatly to the birth and 
growth of certain industries here even in those 
early days. 

The Poles also distinguished tihemselves as 
brave soldiers. Their descendants have turned out 
to be among the best and bravest fighters in de- 
fense of this country. It is stated that the first 
instance of their bravery in America is recorded 
in the year 1609. In that year when the Indians 
had set an ambush to kill Capt. John Smith, it was 
a group of Poles who saved his life. But the darinig, 
bravery, and their devotion to the cause of free- 

dom and independence was fully demonstrated 
in our Revolutionary War. It is hardly necessary 
to narrate in detail the deeds and accomplishment 
of Thaddeus Kosciusko and Casimir Pulaski, the 
bravest and most illustrious of Poles whose noble 
deeds are enshrined in the annals of this country. 
In a sense we can hardly do as much for Poland 
as these two Poles did for America during her 
fight for independence. 

Thus long before the independence of this coun- 
try, and ever since then, the Poles have been very 
active in their constructive work. Today many 
million Americans of Polish descent are among 
our most patriotic, public-spirited, and loyal citi- 
zens. They have, in the course of their long his- 
tory here, contributed immensely, and in many 
instances with great distinction, to our civiliza- 
tion. I am extremely glad and proud to participate 
in this historic celebration, the 350th anniversary 
of the first Polish settlement in America. 

TOWN IN 1955 





■-• " 


Men And Women Of Polish Blood 
Contributed Their Toil And Talents 


in the House of Representatives 

It is proper and fruitful for us to engage in 
such commemorations. They give us a better un- 
derstanding of our heritage, and they help us to 
appreciate the principles which should guide us 
in our endeavors through the years to come, 

I am particularly pleased that we have this 
opportunity to recall the part which people of 
Polish ancestry have played in the early history 
of America, and of our Nation. 

In our daily activities we come in contact with 
many persons bearing! Polish names who came 
to the United States during the last 50 or 70 years. 
The majority of Americans of Polish ancestry 
probably belong to that group: the group consist- 
ing of first-and second-generation Americans. 

This should not be taken to indicate that the 
participation of immigrants from Poland in the 
growth and development of the United States is 
confined to the last few generations. The very 
opposite is the case. The entire history of our 
Nation, and the record of the early colonization 
of the New World, contain ample evidence that 
men and women of Polish blood contributed their 
toil and talents to the settlement of North Ameri- 
ca, and to the birth and development of our great 

We should remember this fact and, to this end, 
our thoughts turn today to the small British sail- 
ing vessel, named Mary and Margaret, which 
crossed the Atlantic Ocean and docked in James- 
town, Va., 350 years ago. 

Aboard this ship, whichi was bringing provisions 
and settlers to Jamestown, were five Poles, spe- 
cialists in industry, who came to the New World 
to lend their talents, and their energies, to the 
task of developing the American Continent. 

From old records we have learned that these 
five Polish experts built the first glass, furnace 
on the American continent, organized the produc- 
tion of soap, pitdh, clapboards, and other build- 
ing materials, and contributed greatly to the suc- 
cess of the early English colony at Jamestown. 

These facts should be remembered by all of us, 
and we should take pride in them. We should be 
equally proud of the countless other men and wo- 
men who came to this land from Poland in the 
decades and centuries that followed the settle- 

ment at Jamestown, helped to conquer the wilder- 
ness, and to build the American Nation upon 
Lhis continent. 

The names of many of those men and women 
are long forgotten, but the fruits of their lobors 
are here for all of us to enjoy. They are a part 
of our great American heritage. 

Our heritage is made up of many things— of 
customs and traditions brought here from other 
lands, of the political and social institutions which 
were born abroad and developed here, and of the 
material progress which our Nation has achieved 
through the rare blending of our natural resour- 
ces with the know how and energy expanded in 
developing them. 

As we consider our way of life, we become 
aware of the extent to which our institutions 
are modeled after principles developed long ago 
in Europe. Many of the immigrants brought to 
this land not only their meager personal belong- 
ings, their skills and their trades, but also their 
personal experience with social and political in- 
stitutions. All this enriched our society, and fa- 
cilitated the progress of our Republic. 

In thinking about these matters, we recall Po- 
land's ancient parliamentary tradition, and Po- 
land's famous constitution of May 3, 1791. 

That constitution, adopted peacefully by the 
Polish nation while their country was faced with 
a deadly threat to its freedom and independence, 
stands even today as a model of a liberal, parlia- 
mentary constitution. 

These, then, are some of the contributions which 
people of Polish ancestry made to the progress 
of this Nation. They date back to the landing 
of the small group of Poles at Jamestown 350 
years ago, and they have continued ever since. 
They include the efforts that our people spent 
in the new world, in fighting for American inde- 
pendence, and in developing the natural- resources 
of this land. They also include the customs and 
traditions which they brought here, as well as 
the achievements of Poles on other continents 
which had a constructive impact on our own way 
of life. 

We should be justly proud of these things. And 
we should also remember that the success of the 
United States has been due in no small measure 
to the farsighted, liberal policies that our Nation 
has followed in welcoming people, ideas, and ca- 
pital from other lands. 


Statue of Capt. John Smith at Jamestown 


Three Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary 
of Polish Pioneers in America 




of Massachusetts 
In The House of Representatives 

Mr. Lane. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased to bring 
to the attention of the Congress, a little-known 
but important event in our history. 

It was in October 1, 1608 that the first Polish 
pioneers came ashore at Jamestown, Va., more 
than 12 years before the Mayflower brought the 
Pilgrims to Massachusetts. 

Capt. John Smith, founder of the Virginia settle- 
ment, had visited Poland before setting out for 
America. He was impressed by the skill, the 
industry, and the reliability of the Polish people. 
When the new colony at Jamestown was threat- 
ened with failure, he sent an urgent plea to Eng- 
land for Polish workers. They came, and 1 estab- 
lished the first actual factory in the new world. 

From that day to this, succeeding waves of Pol- 
ish immigrants have taken part in the building 
of the United States. 

Our development and progress as a (free nation 
owes much to their character and ability. The 
spirit of these fine citizens is summed up in the 
old Polish saying: "A Pole shall never be a serf." 

God-fearing and devoted to freedom, they have 
made contributions to our way of life that should 
be known and honored. 

For this purpose I ask unanimous consent to 
insert in the Congressional Record the illuminat- 
ing document titled "Americans From Poland" 
that was originally published by the Polish Wom- 
en's Alliance of America. 

It will be a well-merited recognition of the 
350th anniversary commemorating the arrival of 
the Polish pioneers in America: 

Americans From Poland * 

The story of immigrants in America — one of the 
greatest stories ever written — shows how the 
many people of many lands helped build the 
greatest nation on earth. It is mainly a chronicle 
of common people, common but honorable, and 

* Prepared in a tableau form by Roman PucLnski, 
president of the Illinois Division, Polish American 

always dedicated to the principle that man was 
created by the Almighty to be free. 

Perhaps one of the most interesting chapters 
in this great chronicle of America's immigrants 
is to be written about those who have migrated 
here from Poland.. For from the very first days 
of this rich nation's struggle for independence and 
progress, the Poles have left their names imprinted 
on the indelible sands of time. 

Polish Pioneers 

It is impossible to enumerate all of the nameless 
and fearless Polish pioneers who came to America, 
toiling endlessly, clearing away forests, laboring 
the virgin soil, withstanding brutal Indian attacks 
and massacres, struggling and praying that their 
efforts could in part contribute to a rebirth of 
faith in the dignity of man on these barren shores 
of a new land in the Western Hemisphere. 

Yes, among the millions of pages of American 
history written by the great — and not so great — 
the dauntless spirit of Polish immigrants can al- 
ways be found. They came here to pave the way 
for the future economic and cultural development 
of the United States. 

It would be difficult for us today to mention 
even all of those Poles in America who have risen 
above the anonymous crowd and left indelible 
traces of their activity in the United States. Time 
would not permit a chronicling of their events, for 
there are tens of thousands of dedicated Poles 
who during the past 350 years came here as fear- 
less trappers, brave soldiers and great pioneers of 

This booklet is by no means intended to present 
the full story of Poles in America, for the full 
story has yet to be written. Instead, we hope 
through this simple booklet to arouse curiosity to 
whet the appetite of historians and to inspire 
among our students of history a rebirth of deter- 
mination toward chronicling a more detailed 
story of Poles in America. It is a beautiful story — 
a rich story — a story of a gallant people whose 
brave deeds reach down into the very roots of 
American history. 

Better Understanding Of Our Heritage 

We hope also that the young, and the old, will 
have a better understanding of their own heritage 
as Americans of Polish descent. It is our earnest 
hope that during this great jubilee year observing 
the 350th anniversary of the arrival of Poles in 
America, all Americans will better understand 
that their neighbors of Polisn ancestry are not a 
new phenomenon in this country, that they are 
not a foreign element which only in recent years 

















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has found expression, but that Poles have played 
an integral part in the very birth of these great 
United States and have contributed to their 
growth and progress for generations dating back 
to 1608. 

If through these efforts we succeed in doing 
nothing more than getting all Americans to under- 
stand better the very stimulating history of Poles 
in America, we shall consider this jubilee year a 
huge success. We shall try — through the cold 
pages of history — to bring warmth into your 

Jan z Kolna 

Some of the writers who have tried to tell the 
story of Poles in America actually go back to 1475, 
17 years before Christopher Columbus discovered 
America. That year one Jan z Kolna, a Polish 
seafarer and explorer in the service of the King 
of Denmark, was supposed to have bumped into 
Labrador and then sailed down to the mouth 
of the Delaware River. But scholars find no 
convincing proof of this extraordinary voyage, 
about which there is a persistent tradition in Pol- 
ish lore. We will have to leave to more persistent 
research the task of proving more convincingly 
whether Jan z Kolna did in fact first discover 

Our jubilee year begins with the first landing 
of Poles in Jamestown in 1608. For here we are 
on firm historical ground. The indisputable per- 
sonal diaries of Capt. John Smith — founder of 
the Virginia settlement at the very birth of the 
17th century — duly record the contributions of 
Polish immigrants in establishing the infant col- 
ony's first industry. 

Capt. John Smith Asked For Polish Workers 

An orphan and pretty much on his own since 
early childhood, Captain Smith had traveled ex- 
tensively through Europe. During his many jour- 
neys, he had visited Poland and learned firsthand 
of the industrious nature of the Polish people. He 
had marveled at their skills in lumbering, wood 
carving, glass making, and the production of tar 
and pitch — a sticky substance made from the by- 
products of tar and used for roofing and water- 
proofing buildings. Shortly after his arrival here 
in 1607, with a group of vagabond gentlemen, 
wearing silk and shunning work, Captain Smith 
quickly realized that without skilled workers the 
newly formed colony could not long survive. Smith 
sent urgent pleas to his home office in England 
to send him workers, particularly Poles because 
there were large tar and pitch swamps within 
a stone's throw of the new Jamestown colony. 

Smith recalled how industrious the Poles were. 
It is no surprise, then, that when he found him- 
self in difficulty, he turned to the Poles. 

Historic Date 

The first group of Poles arrived October 1, 1608. 
As they made their way up the shore from the 
ships that brought them through a treacherous 
voyage from England, their voices rang out with 
song and joy — they had come to the promised 
land, where even the air had a new breath of 

While some historians attempt to list the first 
group of Poles who landed in Jamestown by name, 
intensive research on our own has failed to con- 
firm these names. It is for this reason, therefore, 
that we shall satisfy ourselves for the time being 


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Replica of Fort James 

with Captain Smith's own references to the Po- 
lonians — as he called them — without resorting to 
their respective names. 

Captain Smith lost no time in putting them to 
work, and he duly credits them with starting 
the first actual factory in America — a glass works 
near Jamestown, Va. Today, in that historic 
American shrine, stands a replica of this first 
American industry manned by the skillful Poles. 
Poles Receive Credit 

In his memories Captain Smith credits the Poles 
with saving the economy of the infant colony. 
But after he left the colony, the early English 
settlers regarded the Poles, and other European 
laborers as foreigners and inferiors. They were 
in the community, helping it to survive, but they 
were not considered of it. 

For 12 yeans, while the settlement swung 
between success and failure, the Poles worked 
hard at their jobs, but they were barred from 
participating in civil affairs and had no political 
rights. While actually helping the young colony 
survive these Poles were in effect little better 
than serfs. This intolerable situation brought 
violent reactions from the Poles. For there is an 
old Polish saying which has survived as the very 
battle cry of Poles since the birth of their brave 
nation 1,000 years ago — "Polak nie Sluga" — "A 
Pole shall never be a serf." By 1619, their pride 
spilled over and the Poles, yearning for equality, 
went on strike — the first strike ever staged in 
the New World. 
First Strike 

It is significant, perhaps more significant than 
would be immediately discernable, that this first 
strike was not staged by the Poles for economic 
gains. Instead, they demanded the right to vote, 
full equality with the others, and the right to 

own property. In the tiny community, this was 
equivalent to a major rebellion. It was the first 
political upheaval in America, for the purpose 
of extending democratic rights to the common 
man. Here was the first manifestation that Amer- 
ica shall be a heaven for the oppressed, a sanctuary 
for the free, and a bastion against the tyranny of 
Real Freedom 

The future of the Virginia colony — and perhaps 
the future of America — swung on the outcome of 
this strike. We know too little yet about how 
the strike was handled but it is safe to assume 
that the leading people of Jamestown realized 
that the community could not survive very long 
without the good-will of their most skilled work- 
ers. The strike was quickly brought to a suc- 
cessful conclusion. The Poles' grievances were 
heeded by the first parliament in America, the 
House of Burgess in Jamestown. According to the 
contemporary record, "it was agreed that the 
Poles shall be enfranchised and made as free as 
any inhabitants there whatsoever." In order to 
perpetuate the Poles' techniques in making pitch, 
tar, and glass, it was further agreed that "some 
young men shall be put unto them to learn their 
skill and knowledge therein, for the benefit of the 
country hereafter." 

Who, then, is to say today what course the newly 
born nation on the eastern shores of America 
would have taken if not for the gallant action of 
these determined Poles. We see from the record 
that the early colonists — the aristocracy which 
first came here with Captain Smith- — had every 
intention of recreating in America the very system 
of vested gentry and castes which the common 
man had left Europe to escape. It cannot be 
emphasized too strongly that perhaps the very 







essence of our democratic system, as we in Amer- 
ica know it today, may never have been realized 
if not for the dogged determination of these early 
Polish immigrants. No measure of praise or glory 
can adequately describe their unselfish contribu- 
tion to this Nation's early beginnings, for it was 
these Poles who, with their bare hands and stub- 
born determination laid the very foundations 
on which freedom for all men was born in America. 
In the middle of the 17th century, perhaps after 
hearing how valuable the Poles were to the Brit- 
ish colony in Virginia, the Dutch settlers of New 
Amsterdam persuaded others to come here from 
Poland to help them grow food and fight the 
British of New England. These immigrants were 
also very hardy, industrious, effective; Gov. Peter 
Stuyvesant, of New Holland, was quite pleased 
with them. 

First Academy Founded By Pole 

In 1659, a Polish scholar, Dr. Alexander Kur- 
cyusz came to New Amsterdam on the Hollander's 
invitation and founded an academy, the first 
institution of higher learning in what is now 
New York City. In the history of American edu- 
cation, he is now known as Dr. Alexander Curtius. 

By 1662, an exiled Polish nobleman named 
Albert Zaborowski — later known as Zabriski — 
came to New Amsterdam. He later moved across 
the Hudson River to New Jersey where he became 
one of the first judges of the State and subse- 
quently the owner of considerable land holdings 
along the Passaic River. Today, the multi-billion- 
dollar industrial centers of New Jersey stand on 
land developed by Zaborowski. Todiay, also, some 
of the elite families of the eastern seaboard — 
ranking high on the list of society — number him 
among their ancestors. 

Poles also settled in the Delaware Valley as 
early as 1650. Pennsylvania archives show them 
to have been a part of that colony in the days of 
its founder, William Penn. There was a thin 
trickle of Poles into Pennsylvania and Virginia 
for the next 100 years. 

The whole world knows the legendary story 
of America's famous explorer;, Daniel Boone. 
Every American child has seen movies and tele- 
vision shows relating his heroic exploits. But 
how many of these same American youngstes 
know that a Polish immigrant played perhaps the 
most important part in Boone's future fame? 

John Anthony Sadowski 

In 1736, John Anthony Sadowski pushed into 
the wilderness beyond the Allegheny Mountains. 
Driven by a native curiosity, Sadowski's restless 
spirit would give him no peace until he could 
discover for himself what lies beyond the tower- 
ing mountains. Braving the Indians and wild 
beasts which roamed throughout this virgin terri- 
tory—never yet visited by white men— Sadowski 
pushed westward. He established an outpost on 
the Ohio River which a century later became 

one of America's great industrial towns — Sandus- 
ky, Ohio, for that is how the great name of Sadow- 
ski had been changed on English-speaking Amer- 
ican tongues. 

Sadowski was killed by the Indians in Virginia. 
Then his son, John, and particularly his son Jacob, 
carried on the pioneering tradition of their father 
and distinguished themselves as aides to Daniel 
Boone in the settling of Kentucky. They were 
co-founders with Boone of Harrodsburgh, the 
oldest town in Kentucky. There is a passage about 
their immeasurable help to Boone in Theodore 
Roosevelt's book: "The Winning of the West." 

Yes, history has played a cruel trick on the 
Sadowski family by omitting their names from 
the illustrious pinnacle it has awarded Boone 
and other American explorers. 

And there were many other Polish explorers 
who distinguished themselves — time and again — 
in America's infant days. 

First Reliable Map 

The first reliable map of the coast of New Eng- 
land — a notable and extremely useful document 
in its time — was drawn by a Polish surveyor, 
Karol Blaszkiewicz. 

Somewhere in the South, a man named Paul 
Mostowski, of Warsaw, tried unsuccessfully in 
1776 to found a New Poland. Scarcely anything 
is known of this attempt; most likely the rebuffs 
and obstacles which he had to overcome as a 
would-be Colonist in the New World were too 
much for him. We mention this fact only because 
it indicates there must have been a sizable num- 
ber of Poles in America at that time. 

They played a considerable role during Amer- 
ica's Revolutionary period. 

The shot at Bunker Hill must have been heard 
around the world for soldiers and fighters for 
liberty came from several foreign countries to 
the aid of the embattled revolutionaires of the 
13 colonies. 

Kosciuszko: Father Of American Artillery 

A young Polish engineer, Thaddeus Kosciuszko, 
was among the first to arrive and offer his serv- 
ices to General Washington. "What can you do?" 
asked the American Commander. "Try me," said 

The victory at Saratoga was credited to plans 
which Kosciuszko had worked out. He fortified 
Fort Ticonderoga and West Point. He was soon 
made a brigadier general and chief of engineers, 
but he also excelled in other branches of the 
military art; in fact, he earned the title "The 
Father of American Artillery." His friend, Thomas 
Jefferson, then Secretary of State, said: "I see 
Kosciuszko often. He is the purest son of liberty 
which extends to all not alone the rich." 

Kosciuszko's superior officer, General Gates, 
considered him "the only pure republican. He is 
without any equivocation on the subject of free- 


The Indian Massacre At Falling Creek, March 22, 1622 

Conjectural sketch 

.'/'J if i, -H. 

wm p*** $ ; 


Making Potash at Jamestown — About 1608 

Conjectural sketch 

Glass Blower At Work In Reconstructed Shop 

Casimir Pulaski: Hero Of Two Continents 

In July 1777, another determined son of Poland 
arrived at Washington's headquarters with a letter 
of introduction from Benjamin iFranklin, who 
represented the year-old United States of Amer- 
ica in Paris. This handsome Pole was Count 
Casimir Pulaski, a young Polish nobleman essen- 
tially aristocratic in manner and lacking Kosciu- 
szko's genuinely democratic character and per- 
sonality. Franklin described Pulaski as an officer 
"famous throughout Europe, for his defense of 
the liberties of his country." Rising to the rank 
of general, during the next 2 years— crucial ones 
in the history of the American Revolution — 
Pulaski participated with distinction in the Battles 
of Brandywine, Warren Tavern, Germantown, 
Trenton, and Haddonfield near Camden. Then 
he organized his own Polish Legion, which fought 
at Little Egg Harbor and Charleston. This de- 
dicated apostle of freedom — the hero of two 
continents — whose very name threw terror into 
the hearts of tyrants — was mortally wounded 
at Savannah on October 9, 1779. He died 3 days 

There were thousands killed during the running 
battles of the American Revolution — all dedicated 
to the fundamentals of freedom. But the death 
of Pulaski drove a deep void into the ranks of the 
American Revolutionists. Historians agree Pulaski 
had an uncanny genius for inspiring men into 
battles against hopeless odds-. It was indeed this 
kind of battle at Savannah that brought death to 
Pulaski. But he died as he wished to die — in a 
running battle for freedom. Pulaski was buried 
with the highest honors a grateful but struggling 
nation would bestow upon one of its sons of 
liberty. It is little wonder that thereafter, Amer- 
icans everywhere have showered him with trib- 

ute which is well known to all of us here. Sprinkled 
liberally throughout the map of America are vil- 
lages and towns, skyways and byways, monu- 
ments and plaques, dedicated to this gallant 

Highest Praise From General Washington 

Of both these great Polish warriors, Kosciuszko 
and Pulaski, General George Washington repeat- 
edly wrote the highest words of praise to the Con- 
tinental Congress. For through their unselfish 
contributions, they had helped lay the foundations 
which today make the United States a symbol 
of freedom and dignity to mankind throughout 
the world. 

Kosciuszko, perhaps more so than Pulaski, laid 
down the first principle of equality in America 
when he instructed Thomas Jefferson to prepare 
a will in which the Polish warrior instructed that 
all of his assets in this country — and they were 
sizable — were to be used for the erection of an 
institution of higher learning for the American 
Negro. To this day, the first educational institu- 
tion built with Kosciuszko's money for American 
Negroes stands in New Jersey. It would be wise 
for those who might be tempted to bemoan so- 
called intolerance among Americans of Polish 
descent to ponder this historical fact. 

Migration To America 

With the end of the American Revolution, a be- 
leaguered but determined America began build- 
ing a new continent which would soon attract 
thousands of refugees seeking freedom. They 
came here to work and build — and among them 
again were the Poles. They saw in the American 
Constitution a document written by honorable 
men—a document filled with hope and protection 
for the dignity of man— a document which was to 
endure time and guide a growing nation on a path 


Williamsburg Today 

of development never before witnessed by man. 
In contrast to the oppression and persecution 
which millions were suffering in Europe, Amer- 
ica was the dream of the entire world. It is no 
wonder then, that in this great contingent of 
oppressed people seeking freedom were also the 
Poles. The Napoleonic Wars, the uprising through- 
out the European Continent, Poland's own ill- 
fated attempts at freedom, were all a contributing 
factor for the ever-increasing migration of Poles 
to America . . . for here truly was the promised 

First Polish Community: Panna Maria, Tex. 

In 1854, the first authentic and wholly organized 
Polish community was estalished dn America 
when Father Moczygeba and his followers — a 
group of peasants from Silesia — arrived on the 
shores of Texas. It was indeed an inspiring sight 
as this dedicated son of the cloth — an apostle of 
Christ — led his ill-clothed and nearly famished 
group of Poles into the sunny but dusty valley of 
Texas to found Panna Maria — which only a few 
years ago observed its 100th anniversary. Father 
Moczygeba and his followers brought with them 
crudely packed clothing, bedding, carpenter tools, 
books and yes — the carillon from their church in 
Poland. It was here in the heart of Texas — some 
85 miles southeast of San Antonio — that Father 
Moczygeba and his colony settled and built the 
first Polish Roman Catholic church in America. 
To these hearty pioneers who braved famine and 
rolling seas went the thanks of a grateful Amer- 


ica — anxious to see her turbulent Southwest set- 
tled and devoloped. Father Moczygeba's brave 
expedition served as an inspiration to thousands 
of Americans in eastern States who feared migra- 
tion to the West because of terrifying attacks by 
raiding Mexican armies. This determined Polish 
priest — who had seen his religious teachings being 
crushed by the Prussians in his native Poland — 
pioneered a new chapter of heroism not only 
among the clergy but among oppressed people 
all over the world. 

Civil War 

For almost 75 years after the American Revolu- 
tion, America's valiant effort to weld into one 
nation people of many political outlooks, religious 
beliefs, and economic standarts underwent a series 
of crucial tests until 1861, when terror struck the 
entire Nation; the South clashed with the North 
over the question of freedom for the American 
Negro. In the darkest moment of her brief but 
glorious history, America teetered on the verge 
of self-destruction. The Civil War struck with 
all of its fury, pitting brother against brother, 
man against man, and ideology against ideology. 
A solemn but dedicated President stubbornly re- 
sisted all efforts at compromise, for the principle 
of equality burned too deeply in Abraham Lin- 
coln's heart to allow for compromise. In his many 
inspiring messages, one theme flowed from the 
beleaguered President's lips: America cannot long 
endure half free and half slave. It was a principle 
which had inspired Poles through decades of Po- 


Who found he was gonfe] ; yet to crosse his returne to 

takttk Ikt 
king of I 


And then returning but from the glasse-house 1 

■ alone, hee incountred the King of Paspaheigh, a most 

| strong stout Salvage ; whose perswasions not being able 

S to perswade him to his ambush, seeing him only armed 

F but with a fauchion, attempted to haue shot him. But 

the President prevented his shot [81] by grapling with 

him ; and the Salvage as well prevented him from drawing 

i his fauchion, and perforce bore him into the river to haue 

[drowned him. Long they struggled in the water, from 

whence the king perceiving two of the Poles vpon the 

r sandes, would haue fled : but the President held him by 

1 the haire : and throat til the Poles came in. Then seeini 
howe pittifullythe poore Salvage begged his life, they con-1 
tducted him prisoner to the fort. 

Page 150 — "The Proceedings of English Colonie in Virginia.' 

land's partitions and suppressions by her warring 
neighbors. Lincoln's inspiring words fired the 
imagination of freedom-loving men throughout 
the world. It is little wonder, then, that in Amer- 
ica's darkest moment of history, when survival 
hung in the balance, that thousands of Polish im- 
migrants flocked to President Lincoln's tragic 
appeal for help. 

While Kosciuszko and Pulaski have won per- 
haps the widest acclaim in America for their 
efforts in behalf of this Nation's fight for freedom, 
two other Polish generals — seldom if ever men- 
tioned in history books — distinguished themselves 
in this country's tragic struggle for survival. We 
hope that history will correct this injustice and 
ultimately place them among the ranks of Amer- 
ica's great sons. 

General Krzyzanowski Hero Of Civil War 

Wladimir Krzyzanowski came to America in the 
1850's and completed his engineering studies here. 
He assisted in the construction of three railroads 
in the Middle West, then settled down as a busi- 
nessman in Washington. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War he joined the Union forces organizing 
a militia company which included many other 
Poles and quickly expanded into a regiment' 
under his command. He was made a colonel. 
Known as the Polish Legion the outfit distinguish- 
ed itself in several battles, among them those of 
Cross Keys and Bull Run. President Lincoln ap- 
pointed Krzyzanowski brigadier general but the 
Senate did not immediately confirm the appoint- 
ment because none of the Senators was able to 
pronounce his name. Krzyzanowski's reputation 
as a leader and a fighter increased after the Battle 
of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg and in minor 
battles in Tennessee. Consistently democratic, 
sharing danger, hunger, and fatigue, he was be- 
loved by the Legionnaires who at the end of the 
war gave him a beautiful sword with an affec- 
tionate inscription. Even the Confederates liked 
him. When he left the occupation garrison at 

Bridgeport, Term., the residents bade him farewell 
with regret. 

Pole— First Governor Of Alaska 

After the Civil War, Krzyzanowski became the 
first American Governor of Alaska. He died in 
1887. His grave, in Brooklyn, was long neglected 
but in 1937 his remains were transferred to Arling- 
ton Cemetery. President Roosevelt, speaking at 
the ceremony, expressed beautifully the depth of 
feelings, linking together Poland and America. 
The President said: 

"Throughout centuries and storms, no matter if 
the sun was shining or obscured by temporary 
clouds, Poland forever thought to carry high the 
light of liberty. As we treasure in common the 
same idea of liberty, our friendship with Poland 
was longstanding and uninterrupted. It is an 
honor and privilege to bear witness how the 
United States is indebted to people of Polish blood. 
We acknowledge the merit of the fearless heroes, 
fighting for liberty, of Kosciuszko and Pulaski, 
whose very names became the watchwords of 
freedom. General Krzyzanowski today joins their 
immortal ranks." 

General Karge Of Union Army 

Joseph Karge was another Pole who rose to the 
rank of general in the Union army. He made 
a name for himself in operations against "Stone- 
wall" Jackson in Virginia and in the defense of 
Washington. Two serious wounds received in 1862 
almost compelled him to retire, but he saw the 
war through. Toward the end he was assigned to 
cope with guerillas in the South. After the war 
he was given command of a cavalry unit in Nevada 

Krzyzanowski and Karge were part of the large 
Polish immigration from German, Austrian and 
Russian partitioned Poland that began after the 
ill-fated uprisings — against the rule of the three 
most powerful emperors in Europe. The several 
thousand Polish refugees who came to the United 


States during this period were almost exclusively 
revolutionists seeking escape from imprisonment 
or death. 

Land Of Promise 

The second period, beginning in the seventies, 
was mostly a matter of relatives following the 
refugees, then of the relatives' kin coming to join 
their families in the land of promise. For a while 
a good many people in countries like Poland 
really believed that the streets in America were 
paved with gold. Polish immigration increased 
annually, until its peak in the year 1912-13 when 
nearly 175,000 Poles were admitted to the United 

During the big migration at the turn of the 
century, the new arrivals in America were aston- 
ished that Polish spirit and culture virtually flow- 
ed in American streets. In 1893 — during the 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago — the Polish Day 
held at the exposition grounds attracted 100,000 
people. Polish language newspapers flourished, 
services were being held in the Polish language 
in many churches and practically every organize 
tion had a Polish choral or dance group among 
its members. To many of the new Polish im- 
migrants America looked like a segment of their 
native Poland. 


Replica of a 17lh Cenlury Sailer.— Mariners' Museum. Newpori News. Va. 

The Poles Among Us 

By Albert Q. Maissl 

(Reprinted from The Reader's Digest) 

Barely a year after it was founded, England's 
first settlement in America stood on the verge 
of collapse. Jamestown had a magnificent leader 
in the tall young soldier, Capt. John Smith; but 
most of the colonists sent out with him were 
"gentlemen adventurers" — no match for the tough 
job they faced in the wilderness. Soon Smith was 
beseeching his London backers to "send but 30 
carpenters, blacksmiths and masons rather than 
a thousand such as we have here." 

On September 25, 1608, a small ship sailed up 
the James River bearing six broad-backed artisans. 
Axes in hand, they followed Smith into the woods 
and set about making a clearing. Within three 
weeks they had a roaring fire going under a glass 
furnace, the first factory in the English Colonies 
in America. They tapped the pine trees and dis- 
tilled tar and pitch. They set up a soap works 
and erected a saw mill. Presently, goaded by their 
example, the entire settlement was hard at work. 

Surprisingly, this handful to whom Smith later 
gave credit for saving the colony — thus insuring 
that America would develop as an English-speak- 
ing nation— were not Englishmen at all. Their 
names were — Michal Lowicki, Zbigniew Stefanski, 
Jur Mata, Jan Bogdan, Karol Zrenica, and Stan- 
islaw Sadowski — and they landed in America 12 
years before the Mayflower. 

A few years later these earliest Polish immi- 
grants set another precedent. Virginia's new gov- 
ernor had authorized the election of the first 
legislative body in America, but only natives of 
England were to be allowed to vote. Indignantly, 
the Poles laid down their tools until they were 
granted full equality. In this, America ; s first 
strike — staged not for economic gains but to estab- 
lish the principle of universal suffrage — the all- 
essential craftsmen scored a quick and total vic- 

Today the Poles among us — and their Amer- 
ican-born descendants— total six million. Yet their 
essential character had never changed. Fleeing 
from impoverishment and oppression, most Polish 
immigrants have come to America endowed with 
two precious possessions : an astounding capacity 
for hard work, and a flaming love for the freedom 
denied them in their homeland. 

Among the early Americans of Polish stock, 
men outnumbered women ten to one. Many mar- 
ried the daughters of Dutch or English families, 
and in time their native tongue and customs were 
largely forgotten. But their names— though often 

simplified for the convenience of their neighbors 
— were proudly perpetuated. Typical was the In- 
dian trader, Jan Antoni Sadowski, whose name— 
because it sounded that way to Americans— was 
soon turned to Jonathan Sandusky. In 1735 he 
pushed through the Alleghenies, 200 miles beyond 
the nearest English settlement, and set up a trad- 
ing post near the western end of Lake Erie where 
the city of Sandusky now stands. 

In the American Revolution the Poles, with 
hardly an exception joined the fight for inde- 
pendence. At least a thousand names of unmis- 
takably Polish origin can be identified in the 
muster rolls of the Continental Army. The achieve- 
ments of these Poles who were already Americans 
have been largely overshadowed, however, by the 
fame of two spectacular young volunteers from 
abroad, Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Casimir Pulaski. 
Both had been exiled from Poland for resisting 
the dismemberment of their country by Russia, 
Prussia and Austria. With a love of liberty that 
knew no national borders, they saw America's 
struggle as their own. 

Even before the Declaration of Independence 
was signed, Kosciuszko — the first foreign officer 
to arrive here — offered his services to General 
Washington. Commissioned a Colonel of En- 
gineers in October, 1776, he erected soon there- 
after the breastworks at Saratoga from which 
Burgoyne was battered into surrender. 

Jefferson hailed him as "the purest son of lib- 
erty I have ever known." Congress voted him a 
grant of 500 acres and a cash award of over 
$12,000. But Kosciuszko never used these funds. 
As he boarded a ship for Europe, he handed Jef- 
ferson his will, directing that his estate be used 
to purchase Negro slaves and give them their 

Pulaski fled into exile only after he had held 
the czar's armies at bay for four bitter years. 
When he offered both his services and his sizable 
fortune to America, he did not wait for official 
recognition. He was heading a troop of cavalry 
at the time of Washington's Brandywine retreat 
and was credited with saving much of the Army 
by his slashing rearguard raids. Four days after 
the battle, Congress hurriedly voted him a gen- 

During the winter at Vallev Forge. Pulaski 
repeatedly led raids through the British lines, 

returning with captured food and supplies. Then 
he begged permission to form the independent 
cavalry corps that became known as the Pulaski 
Legion, and spent $16,000 of his own funds to 
equip it. His career was ended at Savannah, 



The Founders — stage and part of amphitheater near Williamsburg. 

where, charging the enemy, he was killed by 

Through all the years that followed, America 
opened its gates and its heart to Polish Patriots. 
Most of these were young members of the edu- 
cated classes who came here with professional or 
artistic training. Thus our arts were enriched by 
such great musicians as Leopold Stokowski, Ar- 
thur Rodzinski, Joseph Hoffman; opera stars Mar- 
cella Sembrich Kochahska and Jan Kiepura; the 
Shakespearean actress Helena Modjeska (Modrze- 
jewska) and the silent-movie star Pola Negri. 
Among scientists were the world-famed anthro- 
pologist Bronislaw Malinowski; the University of 
Michigan's pioneer Professor of Aeronautics Felix 
Pawlowski and its equally distinguished mathe- 
matician, Prof. Louis Karpinski; the engineer 
Ralph Modjeski, who built the spectacular eight- 
mile bridge between San Francisco and Oakland 
and more than a score of other great bridges. 

From 1880 onward, however, the majority of 
Polish immigrants were of a different degree. 
At that time, Poland, partitioned among the great 
powers, was ruled with ruthless oppression. Peas- 
ants saw their sons conscripted into the German, 
Russian and Austrian armies. Rapidly growing 
population condemned many to work for starva- 
tion wages as laborers on the big estates. Re- 
peated crop failures brought misery to those who 
still owned a few acres. 

So, first by dozens and later by the tens of 
thousands, the young men of Poland's peasant 
villages set out for America. From an insignificant 
30,000 in 1870, our Polish population grew to over 
one million in 1900. By 1910, 875,000 more had 
arrived. The tide reached its crest in 1912, when 
nearly 175,000 came in a single year. 

Soon Poles formed a large segment of the 
working force wherever heavy industry had need 
for their sturdy muscles. In Chicago they became 
meat-packers; in Detroit, engine-block casters; in 
Buffalo and Pittsburgh, they worked the Bessemer 
converters and the booming- mills; in Scranton 
and Wilkes Barre they replaced the Irish and the 
Welsh who had had enough of coal-mining. 

Deeply devoted to their religion, they began 
to attend the existing Roman Catholic churches 
wherever they settled. But they missed the elab- 
orate pageantry of their village churches in Po- 
land. After some resistance, the right to set up 
their own churches, manned by Polish priests 
and following Polish customs, was granted to 
them. Today there are more than 900 such par- 

It became the goal of almost every Polish family 
to live within walking distance of its own church, 
around which all sorts of social activities centered. 
Thus, in many cities, densely populated Polish 
neighborhoods developed. But these were seldom 
slum areas. Unable to express their peasant love 

for the land in any other way, Polish industrial 
workers scrimped and saved to buy homes of 
their own with at least a back yard in which to 
rai9e vegetables. In Bayonne, N. J., Americans 
of Polish stock own 60 per cent of all the real 
property. And Hamtramck, Michigan — the most 
solidly Polish city in America — has the highest 
ratio of home owners in the nation. 

Lack of education condemned most of the immi- 
grant generation to work all their lives in humble, 
heavy-labor jobs. Yet they never ceased to think 
of America as the Land of Opportunity. And, in 
the tremendous advances their children have 
made here, they found full vindication for that 

A good measure of their progress can be found 
in the field of sports. Until 1915 only a few Po- 
lish Americans stood out as athletes; among them, 
Frank Piekarski, who made the All-America Foot- 
ball Team in 1904, and Stanley Ketchel (origin- 
ally Stanislaus Kiecal) who won the middleweight 
boxing title in 1907. Today, in baseball alone, the 
list of Polish-American stars, is impressively long. 
Stan Musial, who gets $80,000 a year from the 
St. Louis Cardinals, has been batting champion 
of bis league six times. Ted Kluszewski hit 49 
homers in 1956 for Cincinnati to earn himself 
a $50,000 contract. Then there are Ed Looat, Joe 
Collins, Jim Konstanty, Ray Jablonski, Bill Maze- 
roski, Ted Kazanski, Ray Semproch, Rip Repulski, 
Steve Bilko, Tony Kubek, Ray Narleski, Bill Skow- 
ron and more than 20 others. 

In college football, Ail-American honors have 
been pinned on one or more Americans of Polish 
descent in almost every year since 1927. At one 
point the "Fighting Irish" of Notre Dame had so 
many boys with Polish names on their squad 
that Knute Rockne was asked how he picked his 
players. "It's a cinch, — he answered with a grin. 
"When I can't pronounce 'em, they're good." To- 
day there are about 300 Polish-Americans on 
major college teams. 

In recent years Poles have moved to the top 
in other sports. In golf there are Ted Kroll, Bob 
Toski and the spectacular Ed Furgol, who, despite 
a withered arm, won the 1956 National Open 
Championship. Frank Parker ranked among the 
top ten in tennis for more than 15 years. Stella 
Walsh, one of our greatest all-around woman 
athletes, has captured 41 National AAU cham- 
pionships and set 65 world and national track 

Comparatively few among the immigrant gen- 
eration from Poland ever entered the world of 
business, except to open small stores that relied 
on the trade of their fellow immigrants. Similarly, 
today, most of the young Polish-Americans who 
have attended our universities have chosen tio 
enter the professions rather than business. There 
are now, for example, about 5,000 American phy- 


Buildings such as this were used by the pioneers 

The four glass furnaces located by archeological excavation on Glasshouse Point. 


sicians of Polish descent, including such disting- 
uished men as Dr. Thaddeus Danowski, Professor 
of Research Medicine at the University of Pitts- 
burgh; Dr. Joseph Adamkiewicz, Assistant Clin- 
ical Professor of Surgery at Marquette University; 
Lt. Col. Edwin Pulaski, formerly chief assistant 
surgeon at Walter Reed Hospital. 

The last decade has seen the rise of a whole crop 
of young Polish-American physicists and engi- 
neers, foremost among whom is the 45-year old 
Emil J. Konopinski, who has been credited with 
much of the theoretical work that made possible 
the development of the H-bomb. Other atomic 
physicists include Dr. Gerald Pawlicki of the Oak 
Ridge National Laboratory; Dr. Bruno J. Zwolin- 
ski of the National Science Foundation; and Dr. 
Roman Smoluchowski, Professor of Physics and 
Metallurgical Engineering at Carnegie Institute 
of Technology. In engineering, the firm of Piasecki 
Helicopter Corp. is pioneering in helicopter de- 

Coming from lands where the opinions of Poles 
— and particularly of peasants — were never con- 
sulted, the immigrants at first had no experience 
to guide them in American politics. But their 
horizons have broadened remarkably. Since 1932 
the membership of the U. S. House of Represent- 
atives has included from 10 to 12 Congressmen of 
Polish stock. John Dingell, with 20 years of se- 
niority, is a member of the powerful Ways and 
Means Committee. Alfred Sieminski is now serv- 
ing his third term in Congress as a member of 
the Appropriations Committee. The election of 
Edmund S. Muskie as Governor of Maine last 
fall indicates that non-Polish voters will readily 
support a strong candidate without regard for his 

In the defense of America, recent generations 
of Polish-Americans have played as devoted a 
role as did their predecessors in Revolutionary 
days. When we entered World War I the astound- 
ing total of 40,000 Polish names was on the roll 
of the first 100,000 to enlist. Before that conflict 
ended, 300,000 Polish-Americans served. In World 
War II more than 900,000 served in the Armed 

The conflict returned Poland's history to an old 
and dismal course. Invaded and ravaged, first by 
Germany, then by Russia, its people emerged 
from the struggle to find themselves behind the 
Iron Curtain with Soviet troops in occupation 
and Communists in full control. Once again Amer- 
ica resumed its traditional role as a haven for 
exiled Poles. Since 1945 nearly 180,000 have been 
admitted here under the various refugee relief 

Through recent years our culture has been 
enriched by the skills and talents of such Polish 
exiles as Florian Znaniecki, Professor Emeritus 
of Sociology at the University of Illinois; Dr. 

Hilary Koprowski, Assistant Director of Virus Re- 
search at Lederic Laboratories; historians Oscar 
Halecki of Fordham and Jan Karski of George- 
town; the arctic explorer Henry Arctowski, for- 
merly at the astrophysical observatory of the 
Smithsonian Institution — and hundreds of others. 

For Americans of Polish birth, the current con- 
dition of Poland poses a particularly heart-rend- 
ing dilemma. Everything in their tradition and 
background leads them to reject Communism. 
Yet ties of sympathy and family relationship bind 
them closely to the Polish people. They resolve the 
dilemma by drawing a careful distinction between 
the Poles and the Communist government that 
controls them. Through more than 100,000 food 
packages a month, they try to relieve the suffering: 
of their relatives in the old country. But at the 
same time, in every letter they send, they seek 
to keep alive the thirst for Polish freedom. 

Their primary interest, however, lies in Amer- 
ica. As they view Poland's present travail, they 
value all the more highly the freedom, the oppor- 
tunity and the human dignity that has become 
their American birthright. 


"Wakefield" — George Washington Birthplace 
National Monument. Reconstructed house where 
Washington was born. Family cemetery contains 
graves of his grandfather and great-grandfather. 

We may well call attention of the world to 
our achievements of three and a half centuries, 
and ask all who come at our invitation to share 
with us the joy and the inspiration of the occa- 
sion.. The great heritage that is ours as Virginians 
requires us to properly commemorate this annu 
versary and report on our stewardship of the 
historic shrines in which the American people feel 
a sense of poprietorship. 


Former Governor of Virginia 












Commemoration Day in Pennsylvania 

(Reprinted from The Scran tonian) 

Harrisbuirg, Pa. — Governor George M. Leader 
has issued a proclamation calling upon the citi- 
zens of Pennsylvania to observe October 1 "as a 
day of commemoration of the 350th anniversary 
of the arrival of the first Polish pioneers in Amer- 
ica, in recognition of the many valuable services 
performed for our Nation by her citizens of Polish 

The ceremony took place in the Capitol Build- 
ing with representatives from various Polish- 
American organizations throughout the State 

Henry J. Dende, president of the Polish Amer- 
ican Congress, Lackawanna County, headed the 
Northeastern Pennsylvania delegation. 

On Sunday, Sept. 28, Americans of Polish de- 
scent will commemorate the 350th anniversary at 
commemorative exercises to be held in the pavilion 
of Jamestown Festival Park, Jamestown, Va. A 
large delegation from Lackawanna County is ex- 
pected to attend the festivities which are being 
sponsored by the national committee of the Polish 
American Congress. 

Polish artisans— glass blowers, pitch, tar, potash 
and clapboard makers landed in Jamestown in 
October, 1608. At first there were only five of 
them, but soon their number grew to 50. 

Historians agree that the Polish pioneers were 
instrumental in saving Jamestown colony from a 
total failure, built the New World's first factory — 
the historic Glass House, manufactured the first 
export goods and struck the first effective blow 
for civic liberties. 

Jamestown was founded in 1607, two years be- 
fore this historical event. History has recorded 
that the first settlers were primarily a band of 
gentlemen adventurers lured here by the myth 
that the shores of the New World were strewn 
with gold. 

It took the example of the Polish glass makers 
to demonstrate to the colonists that the treasures 
of Virginia were in the soil, not nuggets to be had 
by picking. 

There was ample wealth, but it required strong 
arms, stout hearts and technical knowledge to con- 
vert it into coin. 

Only 32 of the original band of 100 settled sur- 
vived that first two Winters in Virginia. When the 
second group arrived with 70 recruits for the new 
colony, Capt. John Smith warmly welcomed the 
five Polish artisans among them both as skilled 
workmen and representatives of a sturdy, indus- 
trious nation. 

Capt. Smith, according to history, had reason to 
respect and admire the Poles. Only a few years 
before, in Christian Europe's wars with the infidels, 
he had been captured by the Turks and led into 
slavery. All of Southeastern Europe was then held 
by the Mohammedans and the first Christian sanc- 
tuary and fugitive found was in Poland. 

In the book be later wrote, called "The True 
Travels," Smith describes how he crossed Poland, 
aided every foot of the way by people unmatched 
for "respect, mirth, content and entertainment," 
who insisted on loading him with gifts before 
sending him on to the next town. 

It is important for us to call to memory the 
great achievements of our forefathers in hewing 
out of the wilderness a new nation. The founding 
of the first permanent English settlement in 1607 
of the first representative form of government in< 
at Jamestown, Virginia., the establishment there 
the New World; the flowering Colonial culture at 
Williamsburg and the winning of American inde- 
pendence at Yorktown are important milestones 
in our nation's history. 


A portion of Jamestown 
Island is included in Colonial National 
Historical Park and is administered by the 
National Park Service of the United States 
Department of the Interior. Jamestown 
National Historic Site, the other portion 
of the island, is administered by the Asso- 
ciation for the Preservation of Virginia 
Antiquities. A cooperative agreement be- 
tween the Association and the Depart- 
ment of the Interior has been in effect since 
1940 providing for a unified program of 
development for the whole Jamestown 
Island area. 














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What Was The 
Glasshouse Building? 

The things that interest and concern most people 
in connection with glassmaking at Jamestown are 
what the glasshouse looked like, how it operated, 
and what was made there. 

Archeological evidence points to the conclusion 
that the Italians repaired the earlier furnaces with- 
out material alteration, and operated with about 
the same facilities as the first glass workers. 

Although there are no descriptions or pictures 
of the Jamestown glasshouse, there was aid in con- 
jectural reconstruction in knowing something 
albout the facilities used in glassmaking in Europe 
at that time, what was made, and how it was 
made. There was benefit, too, from the conserv- 
atism of glassmaking. Even the furnace described 
by Theophilus about 1000 A. D. was similar, for 
the most part, to one of the two types in use in 
England six centuries later. 

In fact, many of the steps in producing hand- 
made glass have not changed even to this day. 
The final picture, therefore, of what the glass- 
house looked like, how the furnaces were built, 
the tools and articles used in the factory, and how 
the glass was melted and fashioned is probably 
correct in the main, even though evidence seems 

The most important consideration in starting 
a glass factory was the availability of an adequate 
supply of fuel. There was plenty of fuel in Vir- 
ginia in 160-8. Accounts tell of the great forests 
of oak, pine, black walnut, ash, elm, cypress, white 
poplar, cedar, and other trees. Of the wood near 
Jamestown suitable for glassmaking, oak was by 
far the most prevalent, and the supply must have 
appeared unlimited to the colonists. 

An adequate fuel supply was not the only con- 
sideration in picking a location for the glasshouse. 
Important, too, was a site close to the shore of 
the river, for the colonists had to rely almost 
entirely upon water transportation. 

A factory site on Jamestown Island, as desir- 
able as it might have been from the standpoint 
of transportation and safety from Indians was 
not feasible, for the available high ground was 
being cleared and planted, and it would not have 
been long before the securing of fuel would have 
been a problem. 

Just what the factory building looked like can 
only be guessed, for no archeological information 
was discovered, other than its overall size, approx- 
imately 37 by 50 feet. Nor is there any good in- 
formation as to what such buildings looked like 

in England in that day. Engravings picturing the 
interior of glasshouses of a century later show 
simple, wood-framed factory-like structures. An 
old print, probably dating from about 1500 A. D., 
shows a plain roof supported on corner posts, with 
no covering on the sides. The one at Jamestown 
would certainly have been a simple framework, 
shows a plain roof supported on corner posts, with 
a thatched roof. Such a building you see today 
on Glasshouse, Point. 

The Path of Service 

(P. A. C. Newsletter Editorial) 

The Polish American Congress was founded in 
1944 in Buffalo by American leaders of Polish 
descent who were disturbed by Allied wartime 
concessions to Russian-communist imperialism. 

Among the main purposes and objectives of 
the Polish American Congress are : — 

— complete support of the United States Gov- 
ernment in its efforts to win a just and durable 

— drafting and applying a constructive program 
of activities within the United States for the wel- 
fare of persons of Polish origin, with the view 
of encouraging the growth of their fraternal, pro- 
fessional, ideological, civic and other associations; 

— activities in the direction of closer and deeper 
cooperation of American democracy with the 
people of Poland, in the fields of civic, cultural 
and socio-economic life; 

— furnishing information to the American public 
on Poland's historic role, her aims, her needs and 
her right to independence and integrity of her 

The Polish American Congress was the first 
American organization to speak out against the 
aggrandizement of the Soviet Union and to warn 
against the appeasement of Russia. 

Since 1944, the Polish American Congress car- 
ried this warning to the American public, its lead- 
ing figures, and to the governments, represented 
at the United Nations. 

Events of history, revealing the true menace 
of communism, have proved the validity of these 

The Polish American Congress consistently em- 
phasizes the importance of restoring a free, inde- 
pendent and integral Poland as the cornerstone 
of European stability and as the foundation of 
world peace and American security. 


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Transliterations Of Polish Patronymics 

While neither ihe primary sources, i. e. Capl. Smith's 
writings and original Jamestowners' accounts nor the 
Records of the Virginia Company record Polish pioneers 
by their surnames, a number of Poles could be surmised 
from the incomplete "Original Lists" from the years of 
1600 to 1700. 

The difficulties, however, are great, and without ad- 
ditional genealogical data, it is not possible to stale with 
accuracy, which names bear Polish patronymics. 

Even typical English names are misspelled in the 
records. Non-English are written phonetically, in prac- 
tically all instances. 

Transliterations of these names can be based only 
on the sounds of written words. Some of them have no 

meaning in the English language. Taken phonetically 
and written as Polish sounds, they immediately gain in 
expression and substance. Thus — Michael Lowicke be- 
comes Lowicki — a hunter; Molasco the Polander — Maty- 
szko, Lt. Poitocke — a Potocki, etc. 

In the partially preserved "Original Lists," we find 
such names as: — Henryk Bursztyn (Purstyn), Jan Skory 
(Skorie), Maria (Wrast), Tomass Dab (Dabb), 
Edward Wygon (Wygon). Jan Kulawy (Kullaway), To- 
masz Mienlus (Mentus or Meutis), William Andrus 
(Andrus), Tomasz Odzwierny (Oddiarne), Maleusz Kuia 
(Cuta). Jan Leca (first name recorded "Jan") with wife 
and children, Jan Dajmont (Damont) with wife and 
children, and many others. 

The Pioneers 

(PAC Newsletter Editorial) 

Jamestown in Virginia is the cradle of the 
Polish American heritage, — rich in examples of 
patriotic living, of enduring deeds, of dedicated 
service to God and Country. 

Polish pioneers planted the seeds of these last- 
ing valors in New World's first permanent English 
settlement in 1608. 

At first, there were only five of them . . . soon 
their number grew to fifty. 

Historians are agreed that these Polish pioneers 
in America — 

— were instrumental in saving Jamestown col- 
ony from a total failure; 

— built New World's first factory — the historic 

Glass House; 

— manufactured first export goods in this land; 
— struck the first effective blow for civic liber- 

Other Poles followed in their footsteps and made 
lasting contribution to the growth and develop- 
ment of the United States . . . Pulaski, Kosciuszko, 
Karge, Krzyzanowski, Barzyhski, Sadowski (San- 
dusky) are the illustrious names in American 

Today — we are 7-million strong in the United 

We have built 1,000 churches and parochial 
schools, fifteen High Schools and four colleges. 

We have organized great fraternal orders with 
combined assets of over 250-milhon dollars, and 
two war Veterans' groups. 


We are publishing 8 American dailies and 15 
periodicals in the Polish language. 

In 1958 we are observing the 350th anniversary 
of the coming of the first Poles to America — three 
and a half centuries of our creative participation 
in the development and stabilization of the Amer- 
ican Way of Life. 

We invite you to actively participate in this 
historic observance. 

Etched on the William and Mary roll of fame are 
the names of the first President of the United States, 
who, although not an alumnus, held his first and last 
public office at the College, and three other Presidents 
of the United States, fifteen members of the Con- 
tinental Congress, the authors of both the Declaration 
of Independence and the Monroe Doctrine, a Chief 
Justice of the United States and three Associate 
Justices of the Supreme Court, thirteen Cabinet 
members, 29 Senators, three Speakers and 56 Mem- 
bers of the House of Representatives, 1 8 Ministers to 
Foreign Governments, 21 judges of the Virginia 
Supreme Court of Appeals, besides scores of others 
distinguished in civil and military life, in letters, 
science, the arts, education, and the church. 

UPT 1»M NPH-COl-7019 

Long And Glorious Tradition 

Congressman from Wisconsin 

It is often imagined that the Polish Americans 
like most other central-eastern European citizens 
are recent arrivals to our shores. Actually the 
Poles settled in America even hefore the more 
boasting Pilgrims of the Mayflower. The begin- 
nings of Colonial Virginia marked the beginnings 
of the history of Polish immigration in this coun- 
try. Jamestown was founded in 1607 by the Vir- 
ginia Company of London. A year later, in 
October of 1608, the Poles appeared. They arrived 
with the Second Supply and were engaged by the 
Virginia Company as experts and instructors in 
the manufacture of glass and pitch, tar and other 
products which Poland had long exported to Eng- 
land. They built a glass furnace about a mile 
from Jamestown and cut down the first trees for 
wood manufacture; in short time they sent to 
England the first samples of their work, in fact, 
the first products of American industry. 

Unfortunately, the English settlers were "vaga- 
bond gentlemen" who were accustomed to easy 

life and came to Virginia in quest of gold rather 
than a life of industry and liberty. In his book, 
Captain John Smith gave the Poles credit for 
saving the Virginia Colony and often spoke of 
their skill in making pitch, tar, soap-ashes and the 
glass beads which were used as currency in trad- 
ing with the Indians. Captain Smith wrote: "They 
(colonists) never did know what a day's work was 
except the Poles." 

Then came the terrible winter of 1609-1610 that 
was known as "starving time" ; of the four hun- 
dred colonists only sixty survived. Added to this 
were constant fear of attacks by Indians, pesti- 
lence and famine. Many Poles survived this winter 
and the manufacture of wood products in Vir- 
ginia lasted until 1622. The bloody massacre of 
that year was the fatal stroke that broke the 
spirit of the colony. 

* * • 

The Polish worker contributed to America's 
development not only by his "sweat and brawn" 








' £.'<%&*&> f t 

but also by his honesty and love of liberty. It 
was this sense of justice and willingness to fight 
for liberty that gave the Poles the right to vote. 
For in the year 1619 the Jamestown colony was 
granted a form of self-government by the London 
Company and the English settlers were given the 
right to vote. However, the Poles were denied 
that right. The Poles justly demanded the right 
to vote and full equality with the other colonists. 
In the tiny community this was equivalent to a 
major rebellion. This was the first political up- 
heaval in America for the purpose of extending 
rights to the common man. In it men of different 
backgrounds acted jointly against injustice for 
the first time in the New World. The Poles ceased 
to work until they could vote. The dispute as- 
sumed such proportions that Governor Yeardley 
was forced to report it to the Council at London. 
The Poles won the first victory for freedom and 
the records of the Company mentions on July 3rd, 

"Upon some dispute of the Polonians resident in 
Virginia, it was now agreed (notwithstanding any 
former order to the contrary) that they shall be 
enfranchised and made as free as any inhabitant 
there whatsover: and because their skill in mak- 
ing pitch and tar and soap ashes shall not die with 
them, it is agreed that some young men shall be 
put unto them to learn their skill and knowledge 
there in for the benefit of the country hereafter." 

This first strike of the Poles in Virginia, not 
for economical advantages, but for political rights, 
may be justly regarded as the first struggle and 
the first victory for the cause of freedom on this 

As the Poles won the first victory for the cause 
of freedom in this country, it was also from Poland 
that came the first foreign patriot to heed the 
call of the "Shot that was heard around the 
world" and the first to come to the aid of the 
American colonies in their struggle for freedom. 
This man was General Thaddeus Kosciuszko, the 
Father of the American Artillery. General Kos- 
ciuszko is one of this country's greatest patriots 
and his role in the American Revolution is well- 
known to every school boy. Washington once 
wrote to him "No one has a higher respect and 
veneration for your character than I have." Gen- 
eral Kosciuszko and the equally famous and great 
Count Pulaski are the best known among the 

myriads of patriots that Poland has sent to our 
shores to partake in the cause of freedom. Many 
like Count Pulaski lost their lives in this struggle 
that will be remembered as long as liberty and 
freedom are cherished by man. 

Poles in this country have a long and glorious 
tradition as freedom loving people. They have 
made their full contribution to the upbuilding of 
our institutions and to the fulfillment of our na- 
tional life. Though we are reflecting on our great 
traditions, let us not forget that it is to Ellis 
Island rather than to Jamestown that a great part 
of the Polish Americans trace their history in 
this country. American Poles have been mostly 
laborers and farmers. They arrived in this country 
like the Polish carpenters and pitch makers of 
Virginia and the Polish Soldiers of the Revolution ; 
at the crucial moment in the development of the 
American Commonwealth. At the time of laying 
the foundation of the new industrial empire. This 
army of labor, in which the Poles played an im- 
portant part, has won for this nation the first 
place in the industrial life of the world. It is these 
people as well as the frontiermen who constitute 
the real historical background which needs to be 

* * * 

In reviewing the glorious traditions of the free- 
dom loving Polish people of our nation, let us not 
forget Poland today. If Kosciuszko and Pulaski 
were alive today, they would say: "Fight for the 
freedom of Poland. Do everything in your power 
to bring justice to Poland because Poland is now 
the test case of Freedom as your nation was in 
1776." Let us all repeat in our hearts the song of 
Poland: "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela." 

As a Congressman I know that the best way 
of preserving freedom everywhere is helping to 
preserve the freedom of Poland. Let us forever 
cling to our great traditions of freedom and never 
cease to fight for Poland's freedom. If freedom 
fails in Poland it will fail in all of Europe. Free- 
dom is not something that remains stagnant — 
it either grows or dies. If Poland dies, freedom 
dies with it. Because we love America and because 
we love freedom, our hearts are for Poland, our 
tears are for Poland, our words are going to be 
for Poland, because we know that Poland has 
always been the most loyal and gallant ally of 
the freedom loving people of America. 











(Excerpts from Linn's Weekly Stamp News) 

A strong sentiment is already developing in 
philatelic and other circles favoring the issuance 
of a stamp or set of stamps to mark the 350th 
anniversary of the arrival of the first "foreign 
immigrants" in America. These were a contingent 
of Polish skilled workmen brought in by the 
Jamestown, Va. settlers in the second year of 
their operations. 

The realization that this is a historical fact 
comes as a surprise to many who consider them- 
selves acquainted with early colonial days. It is 
reminiscent of one rather unusual factor held 
in common by two commems of last year, the 
Virginia of Sagadalhock "ship building" stamp 
and the Jamestown adhesive — each brought the 
public face to face with some hitherto little known 
pioneer American history. 

In the first instance the approach was direct — 
the stamp proclaimed the message. In the latter 
the kernel was well buried beneath the assorted 
pomp and pageantry, fanfare and general whoop- 
de-do of noting the 350th anniversary of the May 
14, 1607 landing at Jamestown. Further, it prov- 
ided a faint clue to the basis of the proposed new 

Even so, it was only the alert Jamestown tourist 
who had eyes in his head and a keen perception 
behind them, and who in the course of his meande- 
rings found himself out on Glass House Point 
watching the reconstructed early 17th century 
glass works in operation, who could divine the 
history that lay behind the aquaint equipment and 
oddly dressed workmen. 

For this was no carnival glassblowing sideshow, 
no "added attraction". It was, rather, a recon- 
struction of our great nation's first factory, and 
squarely on the original site at that. This spot it 
was from which the first export consignment of 
American made merchandise was shipped almost 
exactly 350 years ago. And it was on this ground 
that humanity's greatest crucible, the American 
Melting Pot, struck its first boil. The date was 
October 1, 1608. 

Sixteen months earlier the English had landed 
at Jamestown and set up their poorly projected 
and ill organized colony. It had soon become ap- 
parent that skilled workmen were needed, and 
overtures were made to Polish craftsmen then in 
England and others still in the old country. 

The first contingent landed in the new world 
October 1, 1608. At once they set about estab- 
lishing facilities for producing glass cordage, flax, 

masts, pitch, rosin, soap ashes, and other products 
wihdch they had originally exported from Poland 
to England. 

Within three weeks that first glass furnace was 
blazing away, and in less than two months the 
industrious newcomers had made enough assorted 
products to forward a modest consignment to 
England via the "Mary and Margaret" which had 
brought them. Later such products as clapboards, 
building materials and lumber were added to the 
outward bound cargoes. (The capacity of that 
first glass furnace was modest, but its "descend- 
ants" of 1958 have a combined annual capacity of 
more than six million tons, at latest reports). 

Among those first arrivals from Catholic Poland 
coming to the aid of Protestant Englishmen in the 
new world were Zbigniew Stefahski, Jan Bogdan, 
Jan Mata, and Stanisiaw Sadowski directly from 
Poland, and Michal Nowicki from London. 

Later ships brought more Poles wlhk> distin- 
guished themselves both in defending the colony 
against hostile Indians and in helping it grow in 
economy. No one could estimate what might have 
been the ultimate destiny of the ill-fated under- 
taking had it not been for these first "foreign 
immigrants" of its second and subsequent years. 

After a year or so, some of these early Polish 
settlers returned to England with Capt. John 
Smith and settled for a while in London. The 
Virginia Company implored them to return to 
Jamestown with a promise of better living condi- 
tions and a better administration. In May, 1610, 
they returned and renewed their efforts in the 
new world. 

By 1619 the colony had grown to 2000 freedom 
loving settlers who now were extended certain 
civil rights and liberties. Under the pretext that 
they were still indebted for their passage from 
England to America, the Poles were denied their 
right to vote in the election of burgesses, so they 
stopped their work at the glass furnace. 

According to the records of The Virginia Co. 
"they ceased to work until this injustice would be 
removed." The matter was referred to the Com- 
pany's Council in London which went on record 
that "concessions were made to the Polanders and 
they were ordered to finish their strike." 

This was the first strike in America and it was 
won — not for economic gains or fringe benefits, 
but to gain civil liberties. 

Apropos the strike, it was further documented : 
"And because their skill in making glass, soap, 
pitch and tar shall not die with them, it is agreed 




















Typical objects recovered in the Jamestown excavations. 

that some young' men shall be put unto them to 
learn their skill and knowledge therein for the 
benefit of the country hereafter." 

The location where the Poles had their glass 
furnace is known to this day as Glass House Point. 
In 1931 Jesse Dimmick, owner of the land, found 
the exact spot where the furnace was located and 
in 1948 and 1949 our National Park Service un- 
covered pieces of furnaces, glass-making imple- 
ments and considerable chunks of glass. 

During the celebration of the 350th anniversary 
of the founding of Jamestown, the American Flint 
Glass Worker Union with others, spent $100,000 
to reconstruct the glass works and to keep it in 
operation as an attraction to visitors. — The 
equipment dress, atmosphere and minute details 
of the 17th century are carefully maintained. 

On or about October 1st, 1958 on the precise 
350th anniversary, Americans of Polish descent 

will gather at Jamestown to celebrate the arrival 
of the first Polish settlers in America. Incidental- 
ly, there are today some 7,000,000 Americans of 
Polish descent in this country and some of them 
trace their ancestry to the settlers at Jamestown. 

To commemorate the Jamestown Exposition 
held at Hampton Roads, April 20 to December 1, 
1907, on the 300th anniversary of the founding of 
the first permanent English settlement in Amer- 
ica the U. S. Post Office issued a set of three 
stamps in April and May, 1907. Similarly, the 
350th anniversary was noted last year by the re- 
lease of the Jamestown Naval Review single. 

Proponents of the idea of the October stamp 
feel that such further philatelic recognition is in 
order to pay tribute to this first grist to feed tlhe 
American Melting Pot, three and a half centuries 
ago, on the Virginia shore. 


Jamestown Settlers Trading With The Indians 

Conjectural sketch 


For inexpensive beads and trinkets the colonists received furs, foods, 
and other commodities from the aborigines 




Photo courtesy National Park Service. 

Tools Used By The Early Jamestown Settlers For Timbering 

A few of many tools excavated at Jamestown which were used for 

timbering over 300 years ago: felling axes, a hewing axe, adze, 

hatchet, wedge, and saw fragment. 


















History Of Jamestown Glass House Of 1608 

Historical articles on glass, even the most 
abbreviated, usually begin with a review of the 
history of Egyptian and Roman glass, but we de- 
part from this customary treatment, even to the 
omission of a quotation from Pliny, who so nicely 
accounts for the discovery of glass by the acci- 
dental fusion of sand in a desert campfire and 
begin in London shortly before the Second Supply 
sailed for the Virginia colony in the summer of 
1608, for it was in this Supply that the first 
glassmakers were carried to Jamestown. 

Captain Christopher Newport had [returned 
from Jamestown after replenishing the struggling 
colony with men and supplies, and officials of the 
London Company of Virginia were again recruit- 
ing settlers. The word that Newport brought back 
would have discouraged any but the most opti- 
mistic, for none of the Objectives of the under- 
taking had been achieved, save the planting of 
the colony, and even that was in a precarious 

Prominent in the list of possible industries for 
which Virginia seemed suitable was glassmakinlg. 
In the past fifty years there had been a great 
increase in the demand for glass. Expansion of 
the industry had been limited by the gradual de- 
pletion of the forests, for coal was just beginning 
to be used as fuel in glass furnaces. 

Captain Newport had explored the vicinity of 
Jamestown and would have known that the re- 
sources needed for glassmaking were readily 
available in the new land. 

But enlisting English glassmakers to leave a 
flourishing industry at home and set up busi- 
ness anew in a strange land across the ocean 
was not easy. It is not surprising, therefore, to 
find the Company looking abroad, and among the 
seventy settlers who sailed for Virginia in the 
summer of 1608 were "eight Dutchmen and 
Poles," some of whom were glassmakers. 

Whatever the future might hold for glass- 
making in Virginia, its introduction in the fall 
of 1608 certainly appeared at the time to greatly 
enhance the chances for the colony's success and 
supplied excellent propaganda for reassuring the 
uneasy investors in England. Things had been 
going from bad to worse before the arrival of 
the Second Supply. 

The first real step toward permanency came 
with the Second Supply, which brought among 
its seventy new settlers a number of artisans, 
including the eight Dutchmen and Poles. Cap- 

tain John Smith, who had become President of 
the Council in September, dispatched some of the 
newcomers to making glass. 

The glass factory, according to Smith, was 
located "in the woods neare a myle from James 
Towne," or, as William Strachey described it, "a 
little without the Island where Jamestown stands." 
There, as Strachey goes on to say, the glass 
workers and their helpers erected a glasshouse, 
which was "a goodly howse . . . with all offices 
and furnaces thereto belonging." 

These newcomers must have set themselves to 
this task with greater diligence than most of the 
colonists had previously approached their work, 
for, when Captain Newport left for England late 
that year, he carried with him "tryals of Glasse." 
Of what this first "tryal of glasse" consisted, 
the record gives no hint. 

The records tell very little more about this 
first glassmaking venture. There are a few in- 
direct references, sudb as when Smith tells of a 
fight he had with an Indian in the spring of 1609 
when returning alone from the glasshouse. Then 
there is a reference to a second "tryal" being pro- 
duced that spring. But these add little beyond 
the fact that there was activity at the glass fac- 
tory during the first six months or more follow- 
ing its establishment. 

Likely the first glassmaking venture came to 
a close about the time that John Smith returned 
to England in the fall of 1609. In any event, glass- 
making most certainly would not have continued 
during the terrible period of starvation and sick- 
ness which followed Smith's departure — a period 
realistically labelled "The Starving Time," dur- 
ing which all but 60 of the 500 inhabitants at 
Jamestown died. 

Twelve years later, and less than a year after 
the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, a second glass- 
making venture got under way at Jamestown. 
It was a well organized, businesslike undertaking, 
quite unlike the earlier pioneering effort of 1608 
and staffed with experienced Italian glass workers. 

This second venture was organized largely 
through the initiative of Captain William Norton, 
not a glassmaker himself, but an adventurous 
soul with some money to invest. In June, 1621, 
he petitioned the London Company for a patent 
to "sett upp o Glasse ffurnace [in Virginia] and 
make all manner of Beads & Glasse." He proposed 
to take four "Itallyans" and two servants to Vir- 
ginia, who were to have the glasshouse operating 
within three months after their arrival. 


After considerable haggling- over terms, ar- 
rangements were finally made and funds to assist 
Captain Norton in the venture were raised by 
the sale of joint stock. With him the Company 
dispatched a letter to the colonial authorities 
stating : 

"We commend unto you Capt. Wm. Norton 
who is now sett out by the general Company and 
many private Adventurers for her erecting of 
a Glass Worke ; . . . and especially have a Care 
to seat him neare some well inhabited Place, 
that neither his Gange be subject to Surprise, 
nor the Commodities of Glasse and Beads be vili- 
fied by too common a Sale to the Indians." 

The Italians proved a difficult crew to deal 
with, and offered one excuse after another for 
failing to make glass. They did have some hard 
luck, however. First their glasshouse blew down; 
then the Indian massacre of 1622 put a stop to 
everything for the time being. 

Finally Captain Norton died, and even the 
Italians "fell extremely sick." George Sandys, 
resident treasurer for the Company, took over 
the project upon Norton's death, but fared little 
better in getting results. He repaired the furnace 
and the crew set to work in earnest in the spring 
of 1623, but without success. 

"The Fier hath now been six Weeks in ye 
Furnace, and yett nothing effected. They com- 
plaine that ye Sand will not run . . . but I con- 
ceave that they would gladly make the Worke 
appeare unfeasable, that they might by that 
Meanes be dismissed for England. Much hath 
beene my Truble herein, and not a little my 

In a desperate effort to make something of 
the enterprise, Sandys even sent to England for 
sand that might better suit the glass workers, 
but he finally was forced to give up completely 
in the spring of 1624. The records are not con- 
clusive, but they would certainly suggest that 
little, if any glass was made during this second 
glassmaking venture at Jamestown. 

In both of these attemps to get the glass in- 
dustry started in America, individuals in England 
had invested rather heavily. By 1624, when the 
London Company lost its charter and Virginia 
became a crown colony, they must have been 
fairly discouraged. It certainly was obvious, even 
before 1624, that financial profits in the colony 
would come easier and faster from tilling the soil 
than from uncertain manufacturing ventures. 

Reprinted from the Virginia Gazette. 


















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Making Tar At Jamestown From Pine Wood 

Conjectural sketch 

"No Sooner Were We Landed" . . . 
And Making Tar And Pitch* Started 

Pitch and tar — used by shipbuilders from time 
immemorial for cauking and covering seams of 
vessels — were made at Jamestown as early as 
1608. After the second supply ships reached 
Jamestown in October, 1608, one of the settlers 
wrote : 

No sooner were we landed, but the President 
disprersed (as) many as were able, some for 
glasse, others for pitch, tarre, and soape ashes. 
A month later trials of pitch and tar were carried 
to England by Captain Christopher Newport, as 
reported by Thomas Studley, one of the original 
planters : 

Captaine Newport being dispatched with the 
tryals of pitch, tarre, glass, frankincense and sope 
ashes, with that clapbord and wainscot (which) 
could be provided.... returned for England. 

As pitch and tar were made in Virginia through- 
out the seventeenth century, mainly for exporting 
to England, it appears that the colonists made 
some profit from the sale of such products. 

Pitch and tar were obtained from pine trees, one 
of the common trees in the Tidewater Virginia 
woods. Tar is an oily ,dark colored, product ob- 
tained in the destructive distillation of pine wood. 
In Virginia it was commonly made from the re- 
sinous roots and wood of various pines. The wood 
was heaped into a conical stack depressed at the 
center, covered with eartiht, and fired. The tar ran 
into a hollowed-out place in the soil beneath the 
stack of wood. Pitch was a dark-colored viscous 
substance obtained as a residue in distilling pine 
tar, and widely used for cauking seams of boats. 

It is of interest that the early settlers named the 
large swamp north of the town area "Pitch and 
Tar Swamp". Undoubtedly the large pine trees 
which bordered the swamp were used for making 
pitch and tar, as well as turpentine and resin. 

'The Records of the Virginia Company plainly stale 
that the Poles were "masters" and "instructors" in 
glass, pilch, tar and potash making. 


Doctor Lawrence Bohun Experimenting With Herbs At Jamestown, l6l0 

Conjectural sketch 

Herbs That Healed Poisoned Wounds 
Were Shown The Pioneers By One Indian 


Among commodities which the early Jamestown 
settlers searched for were herbs and medicinal 
plants. It is possible that Thomas Wotton and Will 
Wilkinson, surgeons with the first colony, were 
the first members of the English medical pro- 
fession to collect and experiment with New World 

The few colonists who wrote of their travels in 
Virginia frequently made mention of the herbs 
and native plants. George Percy related that five 
days after the settlers had planted their colony 
at Jamestown, May 19, 1607, that "One of the 
savages brought us on the way to the wood-side, 
where there was a garden of tobacco and other 
fruits and heroes." 

On an exploring trip upriver from Jamestown 
in late May, 1607, Gabriel Archer recorded that 
"One (savage) shewed us the herbe called in their 
tongue wisacan, which they say heals poysoned 
woundes, it is like lyverwort or bloudwort." 


John Smith mentioned the spring herbs, though 
he did not know their names: "Many hearbes in 
the spring time there are common dispersed 
throughout the woods, good for brothers and 
sallets, as violets, purslin, sorrell, &c. Besides 
many were used whose names we know not." 

The first supply, approximately 120 settlers, 
reached Jamestown in midwinter and early spring, 
1608. Among the group was a physician, Dr. Wal- 
ter Russell ; a surgeon, Post Ginnatt ; and two 
apothecaries, Thomas Feld and John Harford. 
There is no record, however, indicating that these 
men used Virginia plants and herbs for medicinal 

The man who first made intensive experiments 
with native plants was Doctor Lawrence Bohun*. 
Arriving at Jamestown in 1610, he is mentioned 
several times by William Strachey, who also 
reached Jamestown in 1610 in the Hitorie of 
Travell into Virginia. 

'The name implies Polish origin. 

National Park Service 
Uncovers Ancient Site 

The location of the Jamestown glasshouse was 
discovered almost through pure chance by the late 
Jesse Dimmick who owned the property before it 
was acquired by the Government as part of the 
Jamestown area. Mr. Dimmick knew that the 
glasshouse site might be on his land, for he was 
well acquainted with the old records. These records 
were too vague to tie down the exact location of 
the glass factory, but they did offer some clues. 

Land records furnished the best evidence. Fran- 
cis Moryson acquired a tract of land in 1654, des- 
cribed in the property tranfer as the "Twenty four 
Acres of Land commonly known by the name of 
the Glass house." From that date on, a continuous 
chain of title can be found for this tract, thus pro- 
viding a location within reasonable limits: For 
hundreds of years the area has been known as 
"Glass House Point." 

One version of the story is that Mr. Dimmick 
was walking through the woods one evening in 
1931 and accidentally kicked up a piece of slag. 
Whether he found other evidence just then, he 
recognized the significance of the find, and short- 
ly began some test excavations. 

He uncovered what appeared to be three stone 
structures, and in the earth: remover from these 
ruins, found fragments of glass and portions of 
old crucibles, or melting pots. He did a little more 
digging the following year and then covered over 
the ruins and fenced in the site. 

Thus the site stood until excavations were star- 
ted by the National Park Service in the fall of 
1948, exactly 340 years after Captain John Smith 
put men to work building a glasshouse "neare a 
myle from James Towne." 

The earth was wheeled away as it was trowelled 
out, and then screened, keping the material re- 
covered from each unit within the area, and from 
each soil layer, in separate containers. The digging 
was done very carefully and slowly, for National 
Park Service Archeologist Harrington was quite 
confident of finding glass beads. Although not a 
single bead was found, fragments even smaller 
were recovered, as well as thin threads of glass, 
often as fine as a small needle. 

Because of the very nature of glassmaking, in 
which salvaged glass is a valuable and necessary 
ingredient in every new batch, one could not hope 
to find much old glass, but Harrington was con- 
fident that occasional pieces would have been 
tramped into the dirt floor, and there was the 
remote possibility that a supply of broken glass 
had been left behind when the factory was aban- 

These hopes were realized to a degree. After 
removing the three-century earth accumulation, 
careful excavation of the original earth floor of 
the glasshouse produced a fair amount of broken 
glass, all very small. But by far the most material 
of this sort came from a small deposit at one corner 
of the glasshouse. It quite obviously had once been 
a small pile of waste glass lying on the floor, ready 
for use in new batches. The material in this pile 
consisted of every type of glass that one miight 
find around a glass factory — broken glass objects, 
as well as drippings and other refuse from glass- 

The big surprise was in not finding any glass 
beads or other evidence of bead-making, and the 
keen disappointment was that none of the glass 
fragments were large enough to show what the 
original objects had been. 

Of greatest interest, of course, were the remains 
of four stone furnaces, or ovens, all built of 
rounded river boulders imbeded in clay. The main 
body of the furnace was circular, roughly the same 
size as the one reconstructed in the present replica 

The boulders varied considerably in size from 
small rounded ones only 5 to 6 inches across to 
large, irregular ones as much as 2 feet in length. 
All are a common sandstone which appears in out- 
croppings at the "Fall Line" some 75 miles up the 
river from Jamestown. Identical boulders, how- 
over, are found on bars and beaches along the 
James River where they have been deposited by 
flood waters. 

The colonists knew of these deposits of river 
boulders, for the record of Captain Newport's first 
exploration up the James in 1607 realtes that 
about 30 miles above Jamestown "the shoare be- 
gan to be full of greate Cobble stones." Stone of 
this type is not found in England, further evidence 
that the building material was secured locally. 

The three other smaller structures were also 
built of river boulders .similarly imbedded in clay. 
Archeological evidence provides few hints as to 
the purpose o fthese smaller furnaces, or ovens. 
Each shows clear evidence of having been fired, 
for the clay between the stones is burned from 
heat, and charcoal and ashes were found inside 
them and on the glasshouse floor around them. 

The smaller of these auxiliary units was built 
with exceptionally large boulders, suggesting that 
it might have been taller than the other two, 
although it had the smallest fire chamber, only 
IV2 feet wide and 4V 2 feet long. At the front was 
a small platform consisting of a flat stone and 
several soft, red bricks. 


NPS archeologists exposed this foundation of a row house 170 by 21 feet which five or six ad- 
joining families occupied in the seventeenth century — a forerunner of modern apartments. 





Photo courtesy National Park Servirr. 

Artifacts Relating To Glassmaking — Found Near The Site Of 
The Jamestown Glasshouse 
In the picture are shown a small melting pot, part of a working hole, frag- 
ment from a large melting pot, cullet (the broken or refuse glass in the 
lower left corner), and green glass fragments (lower center and lower right) 

The other two units were built end to end. The 
walls of these twin structures were less than a 
foot thick, and being- built of relatively small, 
rounded boulders ,could only have supported low, 
semi-curcular arches. 

One of the most important features found in the 
excavation was a pit, located near the front of the 
main furnace. It was roughly 8 feet square and 
extended down about iy 2 feet below the original 
ground level. The bottom was filled with furnace 
refuse, containing ashes, fragments of old melting 
pots, working hole frames, stone spalls, glass drip- 
pings, and slag. This material quite obviously 
came from a furnace ,and the only logical conclu- 
sion is that the pit dates from the second glass- 
making venture of 1621. 

Further evidence that the material in this pit 
came from a furnace is the absence of any frag- 
ments of fabricated glass, such as found in the 
pile of salvaged glass described above .Also of in- 
terest is that the only pottery vessels found at the 
site, other than the crucibles, came from this pit. 

Fragments of two atricles were recovered, one 
a leadglazed, red earthenware cooking vessel ; the 
other a small Indian pot. Obviously the first glass- 
makers at Jamestown had used one of the furnaces 
for cooking their food. 

A really important discovery was an old road 
with ditches along each side. It is clearly the re- 
mains of the old road that ran along the shore 

from Jamestown to the glasshouse, then straight 
into the mainland. In later years it was the main 
road to Greenspring, Governor Berkley's planta- 

The archeological exploration, described very 
briefly here, actually revealed a great deal about 
the physical facilities used by the glassmakers and 
something about the way glass was made at the 
Jamestown factory. 

Above all, they show that the colonists made a 
sincere attempt to start a manufacturing enter- 
prise, and that even though the time was not ripe 
for success in their glass ventures, they were able 
to, and did, preduce a workable glass comparable 
to that made in English glasshouses of the era. 

An important phase of the post-excavating stu- 
dies involved research in England, made possible 
by a grant from Glass Crafts of America, which 
enabled Mr. Harrintgon to spend three months 
there in the spring of 1950. No new documents 
bearing directly on Jamestown came to light, but 
a great deal of information was found concerning 
Glassmaking at the time the Jamestown glass 
factories were operating. 

The furnace cf the Replica Factory now operat- 
ing, the pot kiln, the lehr and other appurtenances 
are based upon the archeology, research and study 
of glass by Crafts of America ,the Jamestown 
Glasshouse Foundation, the National Park Service 
and more especially and particularly the work of 
J. C. Harrington cf the National Park Service. 



















■ I— I 








They Were Pioneers 
of Liberty and Soldiers 

Potash and other wood products and tobacco 
were then the first products which Poland and 
American colonies exchanged since earliest times. 
But before these first commercial ties came into 
being the Poles had the opportunity to play the 
role of pioneers not only of American industry, 
but also of American liberty. 

In 1619, during the second administration of 
Gov. Yeardley, an important change occured in 
Virginia's public life. The number of inhabitants 
rose since 1607 to 2,000 souls in eleven settlements 
and the colony grew in prosperity. Up to this 
time colonists were ruled by an absolute govern- 
ment, but Yeardley inaugurated a limited au- 
tonomy. On July 30, 1619, the first legislative 
assembly on the American continent met at the 
church in Jamestown. It was known as the House 
of Burgesses and was composed of two delegates 
from every settlement. This assembly became 
known as the Mother of the American representa- 
tive legislature. 

But not all inhabitants were enfranchised. Some 
were denied the right to representation by the 
Great Charter of 1618, issued by the Company 
and under which Yeardley acted. Anyhow, the 
Poles were disfranchised, which made them so 
indignant, that they decided to cease working 
till the unjust degree would be changed. 

The dispute assumed such proportions that 
Yeardley was forced to report it to the Council 
in London. The Poles won in the end. 

"That seems to show that the instincts of li- 
berty were animating force with those Poles and 
that they revolted at their social condition or the 

virtual slavery in which they found themselves 
contrary, no doubt, to the promises made in in- 
ducing them to come to the new colony", writes 
Martin I. J. Griffin (Catholics in Colonial Vir- 

Enlivened by the spirit of freedom, these sons 
of the then most enlightened free republic in the 
world (Poland) tacitly suffered hunger and hard- 
ships and quietly endured oppression. Even when 
others idled they worked honestly for the colony. 
Never did they become traitors. Never did they 
quarrel nor plot against authority as did others. 

But when they were denied an equal right to 
participate in the affairs of the colony, they re- 

This first strike of the Poles in Virginia, not 
for economical advantages, but for political rights, 
constitutes, indeed, one of the most beautiful 
pages in the history of Polish immigrants in the 
United States. Happening, as it did, over one 
hundred and fifty years before the Revolution, 
it may justly be regarded as the first fight and 
the first victory for the cause of freedom on this 

It must be acknowledged that Polish demands 
for rights met no serious opposition from the Vir- 
ginia Company which, notwithstanding their 
strike, was satisfied with the Poles. The best 
proof of this was the fact that the Company re- 
newed its efforts soon after to bring over a greater 
number of Polish workers. 

MIECISLAUS HAIMAN: — Polish Pioneers 
of Virginia and Kentucky, PRCU, 1937. 




Contributors To The 

Polish American Jamestown Fund 

Expressing our deepest appreciation to all contributors, we are listing them in the same sequence in which 
their donations were received and entered in the Polish American Jamestown Fund records. 

1. Polish National Alliance, Chicago. 111. $1,000.00 

2. Illinois Division, Polish American Congress, 
Chicago. 111. 1,000.00 

3. Polish Union of the United Stales of North 
America. Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 200.00 

4. Henry S. Banach, Chicago, 111. 100.00 

5. Rev. Jan P. Hurynowicz, Menasha, Wis. 100.00 

6. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Francis J. Pilarek, La Salle. 
Illinois 100.00 

7. Michigan State Division.. Polish American 
Congress, Detroit. Mich. 100.00 

8. Polish Roman Catholic Union, Chicago, III. 100.00 

9. Polish Falcons Kosciuszko Nest 888. Balti- 
more. Md. 100.00 

10. Polish National Alliance of Brooklyn, N. Y. 100.00 

11. Josephine Serwinowski, Chicago. 111. 50.00 

12. T. Osowski, Chicago. 111. 50.00 

13. Ally. Casimir Griglik, Chicago, 111. 50.00 

14. Anthony Janowski. Detroit, Mich. ... 50.00 

15. Dora M. Alska, Pittsburgh, Pa. 50.00 

16. Rev. Valerian S. Karcz. Hobart. Ind. 50.00 

17. Mr. and Mrs. Waclaw Frysztacki. Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 50.00 

18. Michai W. Szeliga. Holland Patent, N. Y. 50.00 

19. Rt. Rev. Msgr. W. A. Losieniecki. Wilkes 
Barre, Pa. 50.00 

20. Kazimierz Jarzembowski, New York, N. Y. 50.00 

21. Stanislawa Koprowska, Hamtramck 12, 

Mich. 50.00 

22. Alexander N. Pastick, Hartford, Conn. 50.00 

23. John E. Babiarz, Pres. Wilmington City 
Council. Wilmington, Del. 50.00 

24. Florida State Division of Polish American 
Congress, Miami, Fla. 50.00 

25. Downstate New York Division Polish Amer- 
ican Congress, New York. N. Y. 50.00 

26. California - Arizona State Division Polish 
American Congress 50.00 

27. Eastern Massachusetts Slate Division Polish 
American Congress. Boston. Mass. 50.00 

28. Connecticut Stale Division Polish American 
Congress, Hartford, Conn. 50.00 

29. Rev. M. C. Lankau, The Sacred Heart of 

Jesus Parish, Irvinglon. N. J. 50.00 

30. Rev. Michael A. Gawron. St. Joseph's Parish, 
Alliance, Ohio 50.00 

31. St. Hyacinlh's Parish. Chicago. III. 50.00 

32. St. John of God Church, Chicago, 111. __. .... 50.00 

33. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Si. A. Kulpinski. Queen of 
Martyrs' Church, Cheeklowaga. N. Y 50.00 

34. Rev. F. Banaszak, St. Andrew's Church. De- 
troit. Mich. 50.00 

35. Rev. Michael F. Kowalczyk. Church of the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. Porlchesler, N. Y. .. 50.00 

36. St. Adalbert's Congregation. S. Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin 50.00 

37. Aid for Poland Society, Si. James Church, 
Chicago, Ill„ Rev. Edw. A. Przybylski 50.00 

38. Si. Albertus Parish, First Polish Roman 
Catholic Parish in Detroit, Mich. 50.00 

39. Cook and Dunn Paint Corporation, Adam G. 
Dunn, Newark, N. J. 50.00 

40. Polish National Union of America. Scranton, 

Pa. 50.00 

41. Council of Uniled Polish Societies. Chester, 

Pa. 50.00 

42. Polish American Eagle Citizens Club. Ches- 
ter, Pa. , 50.00 

43. Post No. 97 Polish Army Veterans Associa- 
tion. Grand Rapids. Mich. 50.00 

44. Meriden Council of Polish Organizations, 
Meriden, Conn. 50.00 

45. American Polish Uniled Societies, South- 
ampton, N. Y. 50.00 

46. Alliance College, Cambridge Springs, Pa., A. 

P. Coleman, Pres. 50.00 

47. Polish Falcons of America, Nest 88, New 
Britain, Conn. 50.00 

48. National Dept. Polish Legion of American 
Veterans, Chicago, 111. 50.00 

49. Polish Citizens Club, Inc., Hartford, Conn. . 50.00 

50. United Polish Societies of Hartford, Conn. - 50.00 

51. The Polish Council in Jackson. Michigan _. 50.00 

52. Group 8 Polish National Alliance of Brook- 
lyn. N. Y. 50.00 

53. Moniuszko Singing Society, Group 1271 

PNA, Cleveland, Ohio 50.00 

54. Council 118 Polish National Alliance, Bos- 
Ion, Mass. 50.00 

55. Council 184 Polish Nalional Alliance and 
component Groups. Riverhead, L. I., N. Y. _ 65.00 

56. Council 122 Polish National Alliance and 
component Groups, Hamtramck, Mich 50.00 

57. Council 190 Polish Nalional Alliance and 
component Groups, Union City, Pa. 50.00 

58. Council 34 Polish National Alliance and 
component Groups, Chicago, 111. 50.00 

59. Cenlral Citizens Committee. Detroit, Mich. 50.00 

60. Group 832 PNA. Free Poland Society, Johns- 
town, Pa. _. 50.00 

61. Group 827 Polish National Alliance, Youngs- 

lown, Ohio 50.00 

62. Group 744 Polish Women's Alliance, Irving- 
Ion, N. J. 50.00 


63. Group 205 Polish National Alliance, The Ra- 
diant Society, Pittsburgh, Pa. 50.00 

64. Frank Chudy, Three Rivers, Mass.; Stani- 
slaw Kaminski, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Henry 
Szaniawski, Scarsdale. N. Y.; Jozef Skra- 

bacz, Niagara Falls, N. Y total 50.00 

65. The United Savings Ass'n, Cleveland, Ohio; 
Council 120 PNA. Chicago. 111.; Pulaski Mu- 
tual Aid Society, Central Falls, R. I.; Group 

1360 PNA, Lansing, Mich. total 50.00 

66. Council 123 PNA. Chicago, 111.; Group 866 
PNA, Farrell, Pa.; Council 29 PNA, Toledo, 
Ohio; Polish American Citizens Club, Can- 
ton, Ohio total 50.00 

67. Group 1234 PNA. Avonmore, Pa.; Mrs. Kot- 
larz, Chicago, 111.; Oswego Polish American 
Club- Oswego, N. Y.; Polish National Home 
Association, Lowell, Mass.; Polish Falcons of 
America, Nest 171, Philadelphia. Pa. .-total 50.00 

68. Group 520 PNA. Toledo. Ohio; Fraternal 
Club of Stary Sacz, Chicago, 111.; Group 717 
PNA, Easthamplon, Mass.; Witold W. Ko- 
sicki, Ogunquil. Maine; B. Garwolenska, 
Springfield, Mass.; Frank S. Savery. Three 
Rivers, Michigan total 50.00 

69. Group 559 Polish Women's Alliance. Ware, 
Mass.; Polish Ladies Society, Yonkers, N. 
Y.; St. Augustine Society, 1164 Pol. Roman 
Cath. Union, Detroit. Mich.; Group 1241 Po- 
lish National Alliance, White Eagle Soc, La- 
trobe. Pa.; Group 170 Polish National Alli- 
ance, Agaton Giller and Tomasz Zan Soc, 
Chicago, 111.; Council 54 Polish National Al- 
liance, Detroit. Mich.; Group 89 Union of 
Polish Women, Irvington. N. J. total 50.00 

70. Karol Smyrski, Philadelphia, Pa.; Group 326 
Polish Women's Alliance, Kingston, Pa.; So- 
ciety No. 1108 Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Frank Bielawski, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Sarmatia Universal, Inc.. Boston 
Chapter. Boston, Mass.; Sea League. Branch 
Gdynia No. 15. Brooklyn, N. Y. total 50.00 

71. Polish Council No. 31 Polish National Alli- 
ance, Mt. Pleasant. Pa.; Group 2332 Polish 
National Alliance, Akron, Ohio; Post No. 40 
Polish Army Veterans Ass'n., East Chicago, 
Indiana; Pawet Watroba, Jersey City, N. 

J. total 50.00 

72. Philaretic Society Gr. 535 Polish Women's 
Alliance, Wilmerding, Pa.; Group 177 Polish 
Women's Alliance, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Group 
972 Polish National Alliance, Saint Cloud. 
Minn.; Rhode Island State Division of PAC. 
Providence, R. I.; Group 308 Polish National 
Alliance, Philadelphia, Pa. total 50.00 

73. Wanda Smith, Holland Patent, N. Y.; Post 
173 Polish Army Vet's Ass'n., Los Angeles, 
Cal.; Post No. 36 Polish Army Vet's Ass'n., 



Passaic, N. J.; Jan Landoch, Bridgeport, 
Conn.; A. J. Grobosh, Hendricks, Minn.; So- 
ciety No. 1450 Polish Roman Catholic Union, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. total 50.00 

74. Council 76 Polish National Alliance, East 
McKeesport, Pa.; Mrs. Matthew S. Mickie- 
wicz, Northampton. Mass.; Post 142 Polish 
Army Vet's Ass'n., East Chicago, Ind.; N. A. 
Slapinski Drug Stores, Glen Lyon, Pa.; Rev. 
Bernard Sokolowski, Niagara Falls, N. Y.; 
St. Barczewski. Jr.. West End Dairy. Wil- 
mington. Del. total 50.00 

Council 60 Polish National Alliance, Char- 
leroi. Pa.; Group 2514 Polish National Alli- 
ance, Chicago. 111.,- J. Buczkowski. Central 

Falls, R. I. total 50.00 

Polish Amer. Citizens Club. Toledo. Ohio; 
Polish Veterans in Exile Association. Inc., 
Branch 34, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Polish White 
Eagle Social Club. Cumberland, R. I.; Gen- 
eral Haller Soc., Cleveland. Ohio; Society 
No. 818 Polish Roman Catholic Union, Wy- 
andotte, Michigan total 50.00 

77. Council 27 PNA and component Groups — 
Rochester, N. Y. 50.00 

78. Association of the Sons of Poland — Jersey 

City, N. J. 50.00 

79. Roehr Products Co., Inc. — Walerbury, Conn. 50.00 

80. Council 111 PNA— Worcester, Mass. 50.00 

81. St. James Church, Chicago, 111., Rev. E. A. 
Przybylski, Pastor 50.00 

81. State Dept. of Illinois Polish Legion of 

American Veterans, Chicago, 111. __- 50.00 

83. Delaware State Division of Polish American 

Congress, Wilmington, Del. 50.00 

94. District No. 1 Polish Army Veterans Asso- 
ciation and Auxiliaries, Chicago, 111. 50.00 

85. District No. 1 PNA and Women's Division 
District No. 1 PNA, West Roxbury, Miss. __ 50.00 

86. Indiana State Division Polish American 
Congress, Hammond, Ind 100.00 

87. Nebraska State Division Polish American 
Congress, Omaha. Nebr. 50.00 

88. Casimir Cabanski. Chicago, 111. 50.00 

89. Chopin Chorus — Los Angeles, California; 
Polish Air Force Association, Chicago. 111.; 
Polish American Youth Association in Clif- 
ton, N. J.; Raymond Godlewski, Oakland. 
Cal.; Central Council of Polish Organizations, 
Johnstown, Pa. total 50.00 

90. Western New York Division of Polish Amer. 
Congress, Buffalo, N. Y. 50.00 

91. Rev. Julian Moczydlowski.. Monett, Mo.; Dq- 
browa Parish Club, Chicago. 111.; Group 43 
St. Joseph's Union, Wilmerding, Pa.; Group 
403 Polish Women's Alliance, Carnegie, Pa.; 
Polish Home Association, Franklin, N. H., 

total 50.00 


Compiled by 
Francis W. Dziob. Karol Burke, Joseph Wiewiora 

Produced by The Alliance Printers and Publishers 
Chicago, Illinois 


University of